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Metabolitos secundarios y actividad antibacteriana in vitro de extractos de hojas de Anacardium occidentale L. (mara ón) Secondary metabolites and in vitro antibacterial activity of extracts from Anacardium occidentale L. (Cashew tree) leaves
Yordan Martínez Aguilar,Fernando Soto Rodríguez,Manuel Almeida Saavedra,Robinson Hermosilla Espinosa
Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales , 2012,
Abstract: Introducción: las hojas de Anacardium occidentale L. (mara ón) tienen contenidos óptimos de nutrientes; se ha utilizado como antidiarreico y nutracéutico en animales, sin embargo, la caracterización fitoquímica y antimicrobiana de sus extractos son insuficientes. Objetivo: determinar los metabolitos secundarios y la actividad antimicrobiana in vitro de extractos de hojas de Anacardium occidentale L. Métodos: del polvo de las hojas de Anacardium occidentale L. se obtuvo inicialmente el extracto fluido y la tintura al 20 %. Se realizó tamizaje fitoquímico y pruebas de calidad de las preparaciones farmacéuticas. Se determinó la actividad antibacteriana (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella entérica, Shigella sp.) de tres diluciones del extracto seco (50, 100 y 200 mg/mL) de la tintura al 20 % y de los extractos n-hexánico, clorofórmico y acetato de etilo (Escherichia coli, Shigella sp., Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella entérica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa y Enterobacter aerogenes), con posterior caracterización fitoquímica. Resultados: en el extracto fluido y en la tintura al 20 % se detectaron cumarinas y otros metabolitos como saponinas, flavonoides, azúcares reductores, aminoácidos libres, triterpenos/esteroides, fenoles/taninos. El índice de refracción, la densidad, el pH y los sólidos totales mostraron resultados similares para el extracto fluido y la tintura al 20 %. Además, para estos indicadores no se encontraron diferencias significativas 6 meses después. El extracto seco mostró actividad antibacteriana contra Staphylococcus aureus, con los mayores halos de inhibición para la dilución de 200 mg/mL. Asimismo, el extracto de acetato de etilo indicó el menor crecimiento de esta bacteria patógena, según los halos de inhibición. En los extractos, clorofórmico y acetato de etilo, se determinaron cumarinas y azúcares reductores. Conclusiones: en el extracto fluido y la tintura al 20 % de hojas de Anacardium occidentale se detectaron mayormente cumarinas y su calidad no se afectó durante 6 meses. Los extractos n-hexánico, clorofórmico y acetato de etilo mostraron actividad estafilocócica in vitro, también se detectaron azúcares reductores y cumarinas en los dos últimos extractos. Introduction: the leaves of Anacardium occidentale L. (cashew tree) have optimal contents of nutrients and have been used as antidiarrheal and nutraceutical in animals; however, the phytochemical characterization and antimicrobial of the extracts are insufficient. Objective: to determine secondary metabolites and in vitro antimicrobial activity of Ana
Extracción y Caracterización Fisicoquímica del Aceite de la Semilla (Almendra) del Mara?ón (Anacardium occidentale L)
Lafont,Jennifer J; Páez,nuel S; Portacio,Alfonso A;
Información tecnológica , 2011, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-07642011000100007
Abstract: the main objective of the work presented in this paper is the evaluation of different methods for the extraction of almond oil (anacardium occidentale l) and the characterization of its physicochemical properties. the procedure involves subjecting the sample to mechanical extraction process, or pressing and solvent extraction using two methods, immersion and immersion-percolation. the most efficient method was the immersion-percolation using n-hexane as solvent. the yield obtained is (97.78 ± 1.12)%. the fatty acid analysis by hplc revealed high contení of oleic acid (61.36%). from these results solvent extraction is recommended for the soap industry, for cosmetics and extraction by pressing in the food industry.
Extracción y Caracterización Fisicoquímica del Aceite de la Semilla (Almendra) del Mara ón (Anacardium occidentale L) Extraction and Physicochemical Characterization of Seed Oil (Almond) of Cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale L)  [cached]
Jennifer J Lafont,nuel S Páez,Alfonso A Portacio
Información Tecnológica , 2011,
Abstract: El objetivo principal del trabajo que se presenta en este artículo es la evaluación de diferentes métodos de extracción de aceite de semillas de almendras (Anacardium occidentale L) y caracterización de sus propiedades físico-químicas. El procedimiento consiste en someter la muestra a procesos de extracción mecánica o prensado y a extracción con solventes aplicando dos métodos: inmersión e inmersión-percolación. El método más eficiente fue el de inmersión-percolación usando n-hexano como solvente. El rendimiento obtenido es del (97.78 ± 1.32)%. El análisis de ácidos grasos por HPLC reveló un alto contenido de ácido oleico (61.36%). De estos resultados se recomienda la extracción con solventes para la industria de jabones, cosméticos y la extracción con prensado para la industria alimenticia. The main objective of the work presented in this paper is the evaluation of different methods for the extraction of almond oil (Anacardium occidentale L) and the characterization of its physicochemical properties. The procedure involves subjecting the sample to mechanical extraction process, or pressing and solvent extraction using two methods, immersion and immersion-percolation. The most efficient method was the immersion-percolation using n-hexane as solvent. The yield obtained is (97.78 ± 1.12)%. The fatty acid analysis by HPLC revealed high contení of oleic acid (61.36%). From these results solvent extraction is recommended for the soap industry, for cosmetics and extraction by pressing in the food industry.
Efecto nutracéutico del Anacardium occidentale en dietas de pollitas ponedoras de reemplazo  [PDF]
Yordan Martínez A.,Orlando Martínez Y.,Edwin Olmos S.,Sandra Siza I.
Revista MVZ Córdoba , 2012,
Abstract: Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto nutracéutico del polvo de hojas y reto os de Anacardium occidentale (AO) en dietas de pollitas ponedoras de remplazo. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron 240 pollitas White Leghorn (L-33) de un día de edad, que se ubicaron durante 35 días, según dise o completamente aleatorizado, con niveles de adición de 0, 0.5, 1.5 y 2.5% de polvo de hojas y reto os de Anacardium occidentale en las dietas. Se determinaron en las pollitas, los indicadores productivos, peso absoluto y relativo de los órganos inmunes, vísceras, accesorios e intestinos, la hipersensibilidad intestinal y la glucosa sérica. Resultados. El peso vivo final, consumo de alimento, peso del timo, bolsa de Fabricio y colon + recto en las aves con el tracto gastrointestinal vacío y lleno, fue favorable con la adición de 0.5% de polvo AO, con diferencias significativas (p≤0.05). El consumo acumulado, el consumo de polvo AO y taninos se incrementaron en las aves con la adición de 1.5 y 2.5% de polvo AO con respecto al control; no obstante los indicadores productivos para estos animales se deprimieron. La adición del polvo de AO, no deterioró el peso relativo de las vísceras (corazón, hígado y ri ón) en las aves, además redujo la hipersensibilidad intestinal y la glucosa sérica. Conclusiones. La adición de 0.5% de polvo de hojas y reto os de AO como nutracéutico en las dietas de pollitas ponedoras de remplazo, mejoró los indicadores productivos y el peso de los órganos inmunes; además, la adición del polvo AO en las dietas disminuyó la hipersensibilidad intestinal y la glucosa sérica.
Antidiabetic activity of anacardium occidentale in alloxan – diabetic rats
S Abdullahi, GA Olatunji
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) , 2010,
Abstract: This study investigated the hypoglycemic effect of inner bark extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn. (Anacardiceae) in normal (normoglycemic) and in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The inner reddish bark of the plant was extracted with ethanol and screened for hypoglycemic activity in a model of alloxan-induced diabetes in at species. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the ethanolic extract led to fractions that displayed diverse hypoglycemic effects at doses of 34.0, 200.0 and 300.0 mg/kg body weight. The alloxan-diabetic rats showed significant reduction in plasma glucose level after treatment with the fractions. These results lend support to the validity of the folkloric use of A. occidentale in the treatment of diabetes mellitus type II.
Solid State Characterization of Anacardium occidentale Gum  [cached]
Ebere I. Okoye,Anthony O. Onyekweli,Olobayo O. Kunle
Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: This study sought to characterize Anacardium occidentale gum (cashew gum-CG) from Nigeria. Microbial load on the purified gum and acute toxicity of the gum on rabbits were determined using standard procedures. The elemental content of extracted gum was determined using Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and the amount of inorganic elements was evaluated by determining the total ash content and acid insoluble ash. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), XRay Powder Diffractometry (XRPD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and swelling index test were employed to further characterize the gum. Results revealed that no enteric or fungal microbe was present in the extracted gum; and the LD50 of the gum in rabbits is greater than 5000 mg/Kg. The ash content and acid insoluble ash of the purified gum were 1.5 and 0.3% respectively, while EDS revealed only Ca as the inorganic element present in the gum. DSC revealed a melting point of 291.5oC; XRPD showed no sharp peak; FTIR showed characteristic bands at 710 to 1040 per cm, 1643, 2901, 3208 and 3379 per cm; SEM revealed that the gum is amorphous; and the purified gum did not swell in water. It is therefore evident from this work that Anacardium occidentale gum of Nigerian origin possesses some characteristics that are markedly different from those of Brazilian or Ghanaian origin.
Caracterización fisicoquímica del fruto y pseudofruto de Anacardium occidentale L. (merey) en condiciones de secano Physical- chemical characterization of the fruit and pseudofruit of Anacardium occidentale L. (cashew) under unirrigated land conditions
R Guerrero,L Lugo,M Marín,O Beltrán
Revista de la Facultad de Agronomía , 2008,
Abstract: El objeto del presente estudio fue caracterizar las propiedades fisco-química del fruto y pseudofruto de Anacardium occidentale L., bajo condiciones de secano. Se seleccionaron 10 frutos de especimenes de Anacardium occidentale L. ubicados en el Centro frutícola (CENFRUZU-CORPOZULIA), municipio Mara, estado Zulia, Venezuela. Se realizaron dos cosechas de agosto-septiembre (1) y de enero-febrero (2). La composición físico-química del fruto se determinó a través de los métodos Covenin y AOAC; el contenido de azúcares se determinó por HPLC. Se aplicó un dise o totalmente al azar con 10 repeticiones. Cada planta constituyó una unidad experimental. La masa fresca y seca (fruto y pseudofruto) difieren estadísticamente (P<0,01) en ambas cosechas. El largo y ancho del fruto y el pseudofruto, no presentan diferencias significativas (P<0,01) en las cosechas (1 y 2). Los oBrix del pseudofruto y la acidez titulable del fruto obtenidos en el presente estudio, son mayores a los reportados previamente. Los frutos presentaron una excelente firmeza. Se evidenció en el fruto y pseudofruto la presencia de fructosa, glucosa y sacarosa. La fructosa fue el azúcar predominante. The physicochemical composition of the fruit and pseudo-fruit of Anacardium occidentale L. (Cashew) was evaluated under unirrigated land conditions. The experiment was carried out in the Centro Frutícola (CORPOZULIA), Zulia, Venezuela. Fruits were harvested during two periods, August September (1) and January February (2). The physicochemical composition was determined by Covenin and AOAC methods. The sugar composition was made by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Ten trees were selected at random, ten replicates were made and each plant was treated as an experimental unit. The dry and fresh mass of the fruit and pseudo-fruit are statistically different (P<0.01) in both harvest (1 and 2). The fruit and pseudo-fruit dimensions (long and wide) did not show significant differences (P<0.01) in both harvest. The oBrix of pseudo-fruit and the titrable acidity of fruit obtained are higher than values reported in previous investigations. The fruit showed a good hardness. The sugar composition of the fruit and pseudo-fruit showed the presence of fructose, glucose and sucrose. Fructose was the main sugar present in the samples studied.
Identification of antimicrobial properties of cashew, Anacardium occidentale L. (Family Anacardiaceae)
C.E Agedah, D.D.S Bawo, B.L Nyananyo
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management , 2010,
Abstract: The antimicrobial capabilities of plant extract derived from the leaves of the cashew plant, Anacardium occidentale L. (Family Anacardiaceae), on two common human pathogens of clinical importance, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were investigated. All test organisms were identified to be sensitive to the plant extract, although zones of inhibition were about 50% of those observed using the commercial antibiotic, ampicillin. In terms of sensitivity, S. aureus, a Gram +ve organism, without an outer membrane in its cell wall was more sensitive relative to E. coli, a Gram –ve organism, which possesses an outer membrane in its cell wall. The degree of sensitivity could probably be due to this outer membrane which when present prevents a substantial amount of the extract from making contact with the cell. The antimicrobial properties of A. occidentale are derived from the presence of a polyphenol, anacardic acid and other compounds, tatrols and tanins. Therefore, it is suggestive of the fact that extracts could be used as an antibiotic especially in poor communities.
Estimates of genetic correlations and correlated responses to selection in cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.)
Azevedo, Diógenes Manoel Pedroza de;Crisóstomo, Jo?o Ribeiro;Almeida, Francisco Célio Guedes;Rossetti, Adroaldo Guimar?es;
Genetics and Molecular Biology , 1998, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-47571998000300019
Abstract: the present study estimates variances and genetic and phenotypic correlations for five traits in 27 progenies of cashew trees (anacardium occidentale l.). data were obtained from a trial conducted in 1992 at pacajus, ceará, experimental station of embrapa agroindústria tropical. the characters studied were plant height (ph), north-south and east-west canopy spreads (nss, ews), and primary and secondary branch numbers (pbn, sbn). all genetic and phenotypic correlations presented positive and significant values. selection to increase or decrease the average of any one of the five characteristics of cashew plants in the progenies studied affected the average of the others. the 16-month-old canopy spread can be predicted from nss or ews since correlations between them were high. correlations between ph and sbn were low, indicating that there is a good possibility of obtaining smaller plants without causing drastic reductions in sbn. ph and sbn showed, respectively, the lowest and highest genetic variance estimates relative to the corresponding population means.
Morphological characterization of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) in four populations in Malawi
FM Chipojola, WF Mwase, MB Kwapata, JM Bokosi, JP Njoloma, MF Maliro
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2009,
Abstract: An assessment of the genetic diversity in cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) would assist in planning for future selection of good high yield germplasm that will produce nuts of high quality and fetch high prices on the market. The genetic diversity and relationship among 40 accessions of cashew collected from 4 populations (Liwonde, Nkope, Kaputu and Chikwawa) was characterized using quantitative and qualitative traits. The study results have revealed similarity values between 35 to 66%. Analyses of genetic similarity based on unweighted pair group method of arithmetic averages (UPGMA) grouped the 40 accessions into 4 clusters with 14 sub-clusters and the principal component analysis revealed that apple length, apple nut ratio, nut weight, kernel weight, out turn percent and flower sex ratio accounted for most of the variation. The variation could be attributed to genetic history, ecogeographic origin and selection for desired agronomic traits by farmers. Accessions LW41, NE2, NE4, CH18 and PAL26 showed potential for selection in nut and kernel weight and out turn percent suggesting that this could be a valuable source of variation for tree improvement programme in cashew nuts. The findings suggest availability of broad genetic base that could be exploited for future cashew selection and breeding in Malawi.
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