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Antioxidant Action and Therapeutic Efficacy of Allium sativum L.  [PDF]
Anna Capasso
Molecules , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/molecules18010690
Abstract: Allium sativum (L.) is rich in antioxidants which help destroy free radicals particles that can damage cell membranes and DNA, and may contribute to the aging process as well as the development of a number of conditions, including heart disease and cancer. Antioxidants neutralize free radicals and may reduce or even help prevent some of the damage they cause over time. The antioxidant activity of fresh Allium sativum L. (garlic) is well known and is mainly due to unstable and irritating organosulphur compounds. Fresh garlic extracted over a prolonged period (up to 20 months) produces odourless aged garlic extract (AGE) containing stable and water soluble organosulphur compounds that prevent oxidative damage by scavenging free radicals. The aim of this review was to understand the mechanism of antioxidant action and therapeutic efficacy of garlic.
Estudio microbiológico de ajo(Allium sativum L.) y cebolla (Allium cepa L.) deshidratados Microbiological study of garlic (Allium sativum L.) and onion (Allium cepaL.) dehydrated
S.R. Fuselli,B. Filsinger,R. Fritz,M.I. Yeannes
Revista argentina de microbiolog?-a , 2004,
Abstract: En este trabajo se efectuó un estudio microbiológico durante la deshidratación y el almacenamiento de ajo (Allium sativum L.) y de cebolla (Allium cepa L.). Al ajo se le efectuó un proceso de escaldado y a la cebolla un salmuereado previo a la deshidratación. En las materias primas los recuentos promedio expresados en UFC/g fueron: bacterias aerobias mesófilas entre 1,2 x 102y 1,6 x 103, mohos y levaduras entre 60 y 1,6 x 103, Lactobacillus spp. y Leuconostocmesenteroidessubesp. mesenteroides entre 10 y 50.Se identificaron: Penicillium spp., Monilia spp. Lactobacillus brevis,Leuconostoc mesenteroides subesp. mesenteroides y levaduras en ajo; Mucor spp., Penicillium spp., Monilia spp., Lactobacillus brevis y levaduras en dos tipos de cebolla. Leuconostoc mesenteroides subesp. mesenteroides sólo se detectó en un tipo de cebolla. En ajos deshidratados y durante el almacenamiento se hallaron Penicillium spp., Monilia spp., Lactobacillus brevis y levaduras mientras que los mismos con escaldado no presentaron desarrollo. Mucor spp., Penicillium spp., Monilia spp. y Lactobacillus brevis se identificaron en los dos tipos de cebolla deshidratadas. Con la incorporación del salmuereado la microflora se redujo significativamente hallándose solamente Penicillium spp. La utilización de barreras adicionales de control microbiano tales como escaldado y salmuereado produce un aporte importante a la estabilidad microbiológica de los productos. A microbiological study during the process and the storage of garlic (Allium sativum L.) and onion (Allium cepa L.) dehydrated, with the additional barriers of blanching or brine immersion, was made. In all raw materials the average counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria expressed in CFU/g ranged from 1.2 x 102to 1.6 x 103, molds and yeasts from 60 to 1.6 x 103, Lactobacillus spp. and Leuconostocmesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides between 10 and 50. Microorganisms identified were Penicillium spp., Monilia spp., Lactobacillus brevis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and yeasts in garlic; Mucor spp., Penicillium spp., Monilia spp., Lactobacillus brevis and yeasts in both types of onions. Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides was detected in only kind of onion. In dehydrated garlic storage, Penicillium spp., Monilia spp., Lactobacillus brevis and yeasts were detected. In garlic, when a blanching step was carried out no microflora was detected. Mucor spp., Penicillium spp., Monilia spp. and Lactobacillus brevis were identified in both types of dehydrated onions. When brine immersion was included the microflora dete
Formación in vitro del bulbo del ajo morado (Allium sativum L.) In vitro formation of purple garlic (Allium sativum L.) bulb
H Mujica,M.E Sanabria,N Mogollón,Y Perozo
Revista de la Facultad de Agronomía , 2008,
Abstract: Para estudiar la bulbificación in vitro del ajo morado (Allium sativum L.) se extrajeron ápices caulinares de los "dientes" del bulbo previamente grelados y desinfectados. Estos ápices se cultivaron en el medio de Murashige y Skoog con 2,0 mg.L-1 de 2 isopenteniladenina (2ip); 0,1 mg.L-1 de ácido naftalenoacético (ANA) y 30 g.L-1 de sacarosa. Los cultivos crecieron a 41,54 mmol.m-2 s-1 de luminosidad, fotoperíodo de 16 horas luz y 23 ±2oC. Las vitroplantas regeneradas fueron seccionadas a 2 cm de longitud desde la corona de la planta, se eliminaron sus raíces y se cultivaron en un medio para inducir la bulbificación, constituido por los mismos componentes anteriores, excluyendo el ANA y aumentando la sacarosa a 90 g.L-1. Para los estudios histológicos se realizaron cinco muestreos de tres vitroplantas cada uno, entre los 0 y 28 días de cultivo. En la bulbificación in vitro se distinguieron dos etapas de desarrollo. La primera correspondió al estado morfogénico iniciado desde el día 0 hasta los 20 días de cultivo, y la segunda, al llenado y maduración del bulbo a partir del día 7 de la inducción a la bulbificación. El bulbo se desarrolló por organogénesis directa, siendo su estructura similar al de cebolla hasta los 21 días, para luego diferenciarse por la formación de los "dientes". Las raíces adventicias se originaron de los meristemos en una región cerca al ápice del tallo. With the purpose of studying the in vitro bulb formation of the purple garlic (Allium sativum L.) shoot tips of the "teeth" of the bulbs were extracted, sprouted, and disinfected. These shoot tips were cultivated in Murashige and Skoog medium with 2.0 mg.L-1 of isopenteniadenine (2ip); 0.1 mg.L-1 of naphthalene acetic acid (ANA) and 30 g.L-1 of sucrose. The cultures grew up at 41.54 mmol.m-2.s-1 luminosity, 16 hours of light, and 23 + 2oC. The in vitro regenerated plants were cut off at 2 cm of length from the plant neck; their roots were cut off and cultivated in a bulb-formation medium, made up from similar components, but excluding the ANA and incrementing the sucrose to 90 g.L-1. For histological studies, five samplings of three in vitro plants each were conducted between the 0 to the 28 day of culture. In the in vitro bulb formation, two stages of development were observed. The first one corresponding to the morphological stage initiated from the 0 to the 20 day of culture, and the second one, to the filled and maturity begun on the 7 day of the bulb-formation induction. The bulb developed by direct organogenesis, presenting an onion-like structure until the 21 day, differenti
Antibacterial Effect of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) on Staphylococcus aureus  [PDF]
M. Shokrzadeh,A.G. Ebadi
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has an important dietary and medicinal role for centuries. It is a large annual plant of the Liliaceae family, which grows in most of Europe and in northern Iran. Iranian garlic is used in traditional medicine for infectious diseases, flu and as an anti-febrile. The present study tested the aqueous extract of garlic in vitro for its antibacterial activity. The extract showed concentration-dependent antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus 8327. This activity was heat resistant, but the activity of freeze-dried extract gradually diminished during a 90 days period. The traditional use of Iranian garlic for infectious diseases and for controlling fever appears to be justified.
Cytogenetical and ultrastructural effects of copper on root meristem cells of Allium sativum L.
Liu,Donghua; Jiang,Wusheng; Meng,Qingmin; Zou,Jin; Gu,Jiegang; Zeng,Muai;
Biocell , 2009,
Abstract: different copper concentrations, as well as different exposure times, were applied to investigate both cytogenetical and ultrastructural alterations in garlic (allium sativum l.) meristem cells. results showed that the mitotic index decreased progressively when either copper concentration or exposure time increased. c-mitosis, anaphase bridges, chromosome stickiness and broken nuclei were observed in the copper treated root tip cells. some particulates containing the argyrophilic nor-associated proteins were distributed in the nucleus of the root-tip cells and the amount of this particulate material progressively increased with increasing exposure time. finally, the nucleolar material was extruded from the nucleus into the cytoplasm. also, increased dictyosome vesicles in number, formation of cytoplasmic vesicles containing electron dense granules, altered mitochondrial shape, disruption of nuclear membranes, condensation of chromatin material, disintegration of organelles were observed. the mechanisms of detoxification and tolerance of copper are briefly discussed.
Cytogenetical and ultrastructural effects of copper on root meristem cells of Allium sativum L.  [cached]
Donghua Liu,Wusheng Jiang,Qingmin Meng,Jin Zou
Biocell , 2009,
Abstract: Different copper concentrations, as well as different exposure times, were applied to investigate both cytogenetical and ultrastructural alterations in garlic (Allium sativum L.) meristem cells. Results showed that the mitotic index decreased progressively when either copper concentration or exposure time increased. C-mitosis, anaphase bridges, chromosome stickiness and broken nuclei were observed in the copper treated root tip cells. Some particulates containing the argyrophilic NOR-associated proteins were distributed in the nucleus of the root-tip cells and the amount of this particulate material progressively increased with increasing exposure time. Finally, the nucleolar material was extruded from the nucleus into the cytoplasm. Also, increased dictyosome vesicles in number, formation of cytoplasmic vesicles containing electron dense granules, altered mitochondrial shape, disruption of nuclear membranes, condensation of chromatin material, disintegration of organelles were observed. The mechanisms of detoxification and tolerance of copper are briefly discussed.
Changes in the ultrastructure of meristematic root cells of Allium sativum L. treated with selenium
S?awa Glińska,Barbara Gabara
Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae , 2000, DOI: 10.5586/asbp.2000.011
Abstract: Ultrastructure of meristematic cells of garlic (Allium sativum L.) roots treated with sodium selenate and sodium selenite was assessed using transmission electron microscopy. Both selenium compounds applied at the concentrations: 80, 160 and 320 μM caused many malformations in the ultrastructure of mitochondria, plastids, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus such as deformation in shape and size, disturbances in inner membranes organization, appearance of concentric or parallel arrangement of ER cisternae. Moreover, in the presence of selenium, beside uneven thickening of cell wall, many vacuoles of different dimensions filled with wall-like material even in the vicinity of nucleus were visible. The latter results suggest that selenium not only intensified the synthesis of cell wall material but also inhibited the process of cell wall material deposition. The similarity of all observed ultrastructural changes in garlic root cells after selenium treatment with those appearing after action of other stress factors are discussed.
Estudio microbiológico de ajo(Allium sativum L.) y cebolla (Allium cepa L.) deshidratados
Fuselli,S.R.; Filsinger,B.; Fritz,R.; Yeannes,M.I.;
Revista argentina de microbiolog?-a , 2004,
Abstract: a microbiological study during the process and the storage of garlic (allium sativum l.) and onion (allium cepa l.) dehydrated, with the additional barriers of blanching or brine immersion, was made. in all raw materials the average counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria expressed in cfu/g ranged from 1.2 x 102to 1.6 x 103, molds and yeasts from 60 to 1.6 x 103, lactobacillus spp. and leuconostocmesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides between 10 and 50. microorganisms identified were penicillium spp., monilia spp., lactobacillus brevis, leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and yeasts in garlic; mucor spp., penicillium spp., monilia spp., lactobacillus brevis and yeasts in both types of onions. leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides was detected in only kind of onion. in dehydrated garlic storage, penicillium spp., monilia spp., lactobacillus brevis and yeasts were detected. in garlic, when a blanching step was carried out no microflora was detected. mucor spp., penicillium spp., monilia spp. and lactobacillus brevis were identified in both types of dehydrated onions. when brine immersion was included the microflora detected was significantly lower and only penicillium spp. were found. the use of additional barriers such as blanching or brine immersion produces an important effect on the microbiological stability in these products.
Microbial Ecology of Dental Plaques of Jordanian Patients and Inhibitory Effects of Allium sativum and Allium cepa L. Extracts
Hani A. Masaadeh,Wail A. Hayajneh,Natheer M. Momani
Journal of Medical Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: The present research aimed to study the inhibitory effects of garlic (Allium sativum) and onion (Allium cepa L.) extracts on microorganism isolated from dental caries plaques of Jordanian patients. Dental caries plaques were collected in a private clinic then processed and worked upon in a university laboratory. Dental plaques from 91 patients were obtained and grown on plates following standard protocols. A total of 116 isolates were grown. E. coli, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Candida albicans, Streptococcus mitis, Actinomyces naeslandii, Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus oralis were decreasingly the most frequent organisms. Standard and different dilutions of garlic and onion extracts were tested against those isolated microorganisms. Median values for zones of inhibitions were calculated and blotted. Garlic extracts consistently showed significantly higher inhibitory effects than onion extracts. This study concludes that Garlic extracts do have significant inhibitory effects against microorganisms associated with dental caries and further studies are needed to explore potential therapeutic uses for such extracts. It also showed that microorganisms associated with dental caries of Jordanian patients are similar to those encountered in other different areas of the world.
Antimicrobial Activity of Phenolic Compound Extracts of Various Onions (Allium cepa L.) Cultivars and Garlic (Allium sativum L.)
Noureddine Benkeblia,Said Dahmouni,Shuichi Onodera,Norio Shiomi
Journal of Food Technology , 2013,
Abstract: Antimicrobial activity of different concentrations (50, 100, 200, 300 and 500 mL L-1) of phenolic compound extracts (PCEs) of three type of onions (green, yellow and red) and garlic against two bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus, Salmomella Enteritidis, and three fungi; Aspergillus niger, Penicillium cyclopium and Fusarium oxysporum was investigated. The PCEs of these Allium plants (garlic and onions) exhibited marked antibacterial activity, with garlic showing the highest inhibition and green onion the lowest. Comparatively, 50 and 100 mL L-1 concentrations of onions extracts were less inhibitory than 200, 300 and 500 mL L-1 concentrations. However, with garlic extract, high inhibitory activity was observed for all tested concentrations. S. aureus showed less sensitivity towards EO extracts inhibition, however S. Enteritidis was strongly inhibited by red onion and garlic extracts. The fungus F. oxysporum showed the highest sensitivity towards PCEs, whereas A. niger and P. cyclopium were significantly inhibited particularly at high concentrations. Conclusively, where food preservation is desired, onions and garlic PCEs extracts could be suitable for incorporating in various food products as natural antimicrobial additives.
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