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CONGENITAL TOXOPLASMA GONDII INFECTION
Nazan Dalg??
Marmara Medical Journal , 2008,
Abstract: Pregnant women who acquire infection from Toxoplasma gondii usually remain asymptomatic, although they can still transmit the infection to their fetuses with severe consequences. Transmission of T. gondii to the fetus can result in serious health problems, including mental retardation, seizures, blindness, and death. Some health problems may not become apparent until the second or third decade of life. Serologic tests are used to diagnose acute T. gondii infection in pregnant women. Because false-positive tests occur frequently, serologic diagnosis must be confirmed at a Toxoplasma reference laboratory before treatment with potentially toxic drugs is considered. In many instances, congenital toxoplasmosis can be prevented by educating pregnant women and other women of childbearing age about not ingesting raw or undercooked meat, using measures to avoid cross-contamination of other foods with raw or undercooked meat, and protecting themselves against exposure to cat litter or contaminated soil.
Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Pregnant Women  [PDF]
Servet K?lgelier,Hayati Demiraslan,Bekir Kata?,Dilek Güler
Dicle Medical Journal , 2009,
Abstract: T. gondii is a worldwide zoonosis. Children of women who acquire the infection during gestational period can develop congenital infection. In this study our aim was to determine the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in 455 pregnant women with an age range of 17-45 years. In this retrospective study, pregnant women applied to Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department of Ad yaman 82’nd Year State Hospital between January 2007 and December 2008 were evaluated in order to find the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM antibodies. Seropositivity rates of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM antibodies were found to be 48.4% and 0.65%, respectively. In conclusion, due to the high seroprevalence rate of anti-T gondii antibodies we believe that taking measures related to the hygiene of the foods consumed and determining T. gondii serological markers of pregnant women in our region is essential.
The transcriptome of Toxoplasma gondii
Jay R Radke, Michael S Behnke, Aaron J Mackey, Josh B Radke, David S Roos, Michael W White
BMC Biology , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1741-7007-3-26
Abstract: We have used serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) to define the Toxoplasma gondii transcriptome of the intermediate-host life cycle that leads to the formation of the bradyzoite/tissue cyst. A broad view of gene expression is provided by >4-fold coverage from nine distinct libraries (~300,000 SAGE tags) representing key developmental transitions in primary parasite populations and in laboratory strains representing the three canonical genotypes. SAGE tags, and their corresponding mRNAs, were analyzed with respect to abundance, uniqueness, and antisense/sense polarity and chromosome distribution and developmental specificity.This study demonstrates that phenotypic transitions during parasite development were marked by unique stage-specific mRNAs that accounted for 18% of the total SAGE tags and varied from 1–5% of the tags in each developmental stage. We have also found that Toxoplasma mRNA pools have a unique parasite-specific composition with 1 in 5 transcripts encoding Apicomplexa-specific genes functioning in parasite invasion and transmission. Developmentally co-regulated genes were dispersed across all Toxoplasma chromosomes, as were tags representing each abundance class, and a variety of biochemical pathways indicating that trans-acting mechanisms likely control gene expression in this parasite. We observed distinct similarities in the specificity and expression levels of mRNAs in primary populations (Day-6 post-sporozoite infection) that occur prior to the onset of bradyzoite development that were uniquely shared with the virulent Type I-RH laboratory strain suggesting that development of RH may be arrested. By contrast, strains from Type II-Me49B7 and Type III-VEGmsj contain SAGE tags corresponding to bradyzoite genes, which suggests that priming of developmental expression likely plays a role in the greater capacity of these strains to complete bradyzoite development.Toxoplasma gondii belongs to the phylum Apicomplexa, which comprises a diverse group
Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Stray Cats
H Hooshyar,P Rostamkhani,S Talari,M Arbabi
Iranian Journal of Parasitology , 2007,
Abstract: Background: Cat as definitive host of Toxoplasma gondii is important in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis. The object of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii as well as parasite isolation from faeces and brain tissues of stray cats in Kashan, central Iran. Methods: The prevalence of T. gondii was determined in serum, feces and brain tissue of 50 stray cats. IgG specific antibody to T. gondii was assessed by indirect fluorecent antibody test (IFAT). Results: Overall infection rate was 86% in 1:20 to1:640 titers. The highest percentage (22%) was for 1:160 and the least (6%) were for 1: 640. T. gondii tissue cyst isolated from 2(4%) cats by bioassay in mice. No oocysts detected from cat stool by direct and concentration methods. Conclusion: This study showed that the prevalence of T. gondii in stray cats is high in Kashan region.
Unusual Presentation of Toxoplasma Gondii Encephalitis  [cached]
Caleb Davis,Jacob Manteuffe
Western Journal of Emergency Medicine : Integrating Emergency Care with Population Health , 2012,
Abstract: We report a case of altered mental status secondary to acute Toxoplasma Gondii encephalitis. The patient had no medical or surgical history and presented with acute onset of lethargy with no clear precipitant. A physical exam revealed no focal neurological deficits and a subsequent medicalworkup revealed multiple intracranial lesions with a biopsy confirming the diagnosis of Toxoplasma Gondii encephalitis in the setting of newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A literature review revealed that this is a unique case of toxoplasmic encephalopathy in the United States in a previously undiagnosed HIV positive patient presenting to an emergency department.
Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnancy
Lopes, Fabiana Maria Ruiz;Gon?alves, Daniela Dib;Mitsuka-Breganó, Regina;Freire, Roberta Lemos;Navarro, Italmar Teodorico;
Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-86702007000500011
Abstract: toxoplasmosis is caused by an intracellular protozoan, toxoplasma gondii, which has a wide geographical distribution. the main infection routes are ingestion of cysts from raw or badly-cooked meat, ingestion of oocysts from substrates contaminated with the feces of infected felines and congenital transmission by tachyzoites. the congenital form results in a severe systemic disease, because if the mother is infected for the first time during gestation, she can present a temporary parasitemia that will infect the fetus. many of the clinical symptoms are seen in congenitally-infected children, from a mild disease to serious signs, such as mental retardation. early diagnosis during the pregnancy is highly desirable, allowing prompt intervention in cases of infection, through treatment of pregnant women, reducing the probability of fetal infection and consequent substantial damage to the fetus. conventional tests for establishment of a fetal diagnosis of toxoplasmosis include options from serology to pcr. prevention of human toxoplasmosis is based on care to avoid infection, understanding the disease and serological exams during gestation. pregnant women should be tested serologically from three months gestation, until one month after childbirth. inclusion of serology for congenital toxoplasmosis along with the basic guthrie test for pku is of fundamental importance for early diagnosis of infection and so that treatment is initiated, in order to avoid possible sequels in the infant.
Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Neonates
M Shaddel,ASA Mehbod,M Karamy
Iranian Journal of Parasitology , 2007,
Abstract: Background: To study toxoplasmosis in neonates using PCR and serological methods."nMethods: Sera and CSF of 104 neonates, hospitalized in infants' ward of Taleghani Hospital, Tehran, Iran were examined. The sera were examined for anti Toxoplasma gondii lgM and lgG specific antibodies with ELISA and IFA techniques, respectively. Meanwhile, obtained CSFs of the cases were evaluated for the genome of this parasite by PCR technique."nResults: Results showed positivity in 7 neonates (6.73%) which suggested congenital toxoplasmosis. Results of PCR were positive in 6 neonates (5.77%). The 1/100 titer of lgM specific antibodies was positive in 5(4.81%) of them by IFA technique and 6 neonates (5.77%) had positive results by ELISA technique for IgM specific. The rate of mortality was %0.96. Forty one neonates had 1/200 titer of specific lgG antibodies by IFA technique and 38 neonates had positive results by ELISA technique for IgG antibodies. The prevalence of chronic toxoplasmosis in mother was 32.7% and 30% by IFA and ELISA techniques, respectively. "nConclusion: Toxoplasmosis is still highly prevalent in neonates and should be considered due to the fact that suspected cases might be misdiagnosed and subsequently led to life- threatening or fatal condition.
Veterinary vaccines against Toxoplasma gondii
Innes, Elisabeth A;Bartley, Paul M;Maley, Stephen;Katzer, Frank;Buxton, David;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762009000200018
Abstract: toxoplasma gondii has a very wide intermediate host range and is thought to be able to infect all warm blooded animals. the parasite causes a spectrum of different diseases and clinical symptoms within the intermediate hosts and following infection most animals develop adaptive humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. the development of protective immunity to t. gondii following natural infection in many host species has led researchers to look at vaccination as a strategy to control disease, parasite multiplication and establishment in animal hosts. a range of different veterinary vaccines are required to help control t. gondii infection which include vaccines to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis, reduce or eliminate tissue cysts in meat producing animals and to prevent oocyst shedding in cats. in this paper we will discuss some of the history, challenges and progress in the development of veterinary vaccines against t. gondii.
Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans in China
Peng Zhou, Zhaoguo Chen, Hai-Long Li, Haihong Zheng, Shenyi He, Rui-Qing Lin, Xing-Quan Zhu
Parasites & Vectors , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-4-165
Abstract: Toxoplasmosis, a cosmopolitan disease in humans and most mammals, is caused by the opportunistic protozoan Toxoplasma gondii mainly through peroral infections, bloodstream infections and congenital acquired infections. It has been estimated that one third of the world population has been infected [1,2]. In most adults it does not cause serious illness, however, blindness and mental retardation can be caused in congenitally infected children and severe diseases in those with compromised immunity. A recent study indicated that infection with T. gondii is associated with abdominal hernia [3].Toxoplasma gondii needs both definitive hosts and intermediate hosts to complete its sexual and the asexual replication phases in life cycle. The sexual phase only occurs in the intestine of the definitive hosts, felids. All the warm-blooded animals, the intermediate hosts, become infected mainly by consuming food or drink contaminated by oocysts evacuated from felids and tissue cysts from other intermediate hosts [4]. Acute infection happens in the initial few days, with the rapidly growing replication of the tachyzoites. Tachyzoites switch to bradyzoites as time goes by and form tissue cysts parasitizing in host cells. It would be lethal in Toxoplasma infected immune-compromised patients if bradyzoites revert to tachyzoites. In addition to felids, intermediate hosts carried with tachyzoites or tissue cysts are also responsible for the spread of T. gondii. Peroral infection, congenital and blood infection are three major ways for the transmission of this parasite [5].The first human case of toxoplasmosis in China was report in 1964 in Jiangxi Province [6]. Many human cases were reported in China since the first epidemic survey on toxoplasmosis was carried out in Guangxi Province in 1978 [7]. However, toxoplasmosis cases in China are hardly recognized by western clinicians, for very little information from China was published in English. The rising prevalence of T. gondii infection
Advances in understanding immunity to Toxoplasma gondii
Tait, Elia D;Hunter, Christopher A;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762009000200013
Abstract: toxoplasma gondii is an important cause of clinical disease in fetuses, infants and immunocompromised patients. since the discovery of t. gondii 100 years ago, this pathogen and the host's immune response to toxoplasmosis have been studied intensely. this has led to the development of a working model of immunity to t. gondii, and has also resulted in fundamental new insights into the role of various cytokines in resistance to infection. by examining this organism, researchers have identified many of the requirements for resistance to intracellular pathogens and characterized numerous regulatory factors, including interleukin-10 (il-10) and il-27, which control inflammatory processes. in the next 100 years of t. gondii immunobiology, researchers will have the opportunity to answer some of the long-standing questions in the field using new techniques and reagents. these future studies will be vital in building a more comprehensive model of immunity to this pathogen and in advancing our understanding of immunoregulation, particularly in humans. ultimately, the challenge will be to use this information to develop new vaccines and therapies to manage disease in affected patients.
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