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Durational Exposure of Carbosulfan Induced Effect on Kidney, Biochemical Contents and Enzyme Activities in Albino Mice  [cached]
R L Ksheerasagar,M B Hiremath,B B Kaliwal
World Journal of Science and Technology , 2011,
Abstract: Carbosulfan (2,3-dihydro-2,2dimethyl-7-benzofuronyl [(dibutyl amino) thio] methyl insecticide cum -acaricide was administered orally at effective dose 48 mg/ kg /d to albino mice for 5,10 20 and 30 days .The mice orally administer with similar volume of olive oil were served as control. Daily body weights were recorded and mice were sacrificed 24 hours after the terminal exposure. Kidneys were dissected out freed from adherent tissue weighed to nearest milligram. The kidney histology, estimations of biochemical contents and enzyme activities were carried out. The kidney histology reveals treatment with 48 mg carbosulfan exposure for 5 days, kidney cortical tubules with normal arrangement. glomerulus are prominently attached within Bowman’s capsule. The histological observations of the kidney in the mice exposed to carbosulfan for 10, 20 and 30 days reveals flattened tubular cells, normal arrangement of kidney cortical tubular disturubed. glomerulus are atrophied and are loosely attached in Bowman’s capsule. Vacuoles are found prominent with loss of glomerulus. Temporal study on kidney biochemical contents exhibits treatment with carbosulfan for 20 days caused significant decrease in kidney RNA, protein in female and male mice. Kidney glycogen decreased significantly and cholesterol increased significantly in female mice. Treatment with carbosulfan for 30 days caused significant decrease in DNA, RNA, protein, glycogen and significant increase in cholesterol in kidney of male and female mice. Treatment with 48 mg carbosulfan for 10 days caused significant decrease in kidney glycogen in female mice. Temporal study on kidney enzymes reveals carbosulfan treatment for 20 and 30 days caused significant decrease in SDH, Na+-K+ATPase, Mg++ATPase, Ca++ATPase, ACP activity and significant increase in LDH, ASAT, ALAT, AKP activity in kidney of male and female mice, except ACP, AKP activity were not changed significantly in male mice exposed to carbosulfan for 20 days. The results of the present study suggest carbosulfan has adverse effects on kidney functions leading to physiological impairment. Carbosulfan might have affected cell metabolism and active transport of ions across cell membrane, cellular defence mechanism and detoxification system in kidney.
Residues of carbosulfan and its carbofuran metabolites and 3-hydroxy-carbofuran in oranges
Trevisan, Marcos José;Baptista, Gilberto Casadei de;Trevizan, Luiz Roberto Pimentel;Papa, Geraldo;
Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-29452004000200012
Abstract: the objectives of this study were to evaluate the residues of the insecticide carbosulfan and its carbofuran metabolites and 3-hydroxy-carbofuran in orange compartments (whole fruit, bagasse and juice) and comparison between the residual levels found in fruits with the maximum residue level and the safety interval established by the brazilian legislation. two field experiments were carried out, both with the following treatments: a-check; b-one application of 10 g of carbosulfan . 100 l-1 of water; c-one application with twice the rate applied in treatment b; d-four applications with the same rate applied in treatment b. samples were taken at (-1), zero, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after the last or unique application. the quantitative determinations were done by gas chromatography technique, using a nitrogen-phosphorus detector. the carbosulfan metabolism to its carbofuran metabolite was rapid (3 days), being both analytes concentrated in the bagasse (peel + flavedo + albedo). however, the metabolism of carbofuran to 3-hydroxy-carbofuran was of low intensity or this metabolite was quickly dissipated. carbosulfan residues and its metabolites did not penetrate into the fruit, thus not contaminating the juice. the use of the pesticide was adequate, with respect to fruit consumption, in relation to the brazilian legislation.
CHEMICAL CONTROL OF Thrips palmi (KARNY) ON CUCUMBER PLANT (Cucumis sativun L.) CONTROLE QUíMICO DO Thrips palmi (Karny) EM PEPINO (Cucumis sativum L.)  [cached]
Ant?nio Lopes da Silva,Natan Fontoura da Silva,Cláudio Aparecido Silveira,Leonardo Barros de Macêdo
Pesquisa Agropecuária Tropical , 2007, DOI: 10.5216/pat.v27i1.2960
Abstract: Treatments of cucumber plant with jet application (foliar spray and root flood simultaneously) with Imidacloprid (Confidor 700 GRDA and Confidor 200 SC) eight days after plant germination were highly efficient in controlling the Thrips palmi (Karny) until 29 days after insecticides application, with 83% - 97% of efficiency. These results were superior to the data obtained with methamidophos (standard insecticide) applied in foliar spray weekly. KEY-WORDS: Insecta; Thrips palmi; cucumber plant; chemical control. O tratamento das plantas de pepino com aplica o na forma de esguicho de inseticidas Imidacloprid (Confidor 700 GRDA e Confidor 200 SC) em diversas dosagens, aos oito dias após germina o, foi altamente eficiente no controle do Thrips palmi (Karny) até 29 dias após aplica o, com 83% a 97% de redu o da praga, tendo sido superior aos resultados obtidos com metamidofos (inseticida padr o aplicado em pulveriza es semanalmente). PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Insecta; pepino; Thrips palmi; controle químico.
Factors affecting herbivory of Thrips palmi (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae) on the eggplant (Solanum melongena)
Leite, Germano Le?o Demolin;Pican?o, Marcelo;Zanuncio, José Cola;Ecole, Carvalho Carlos;
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-89132006000400002
Abstract: the objective of this study was to evaluate effects of total rainfall, mean temperature, natural enemies, chemical composition of leaves, levels of nitrogen and potassium on leaves and density of leaf trichomes on attack intensity of thrips palmi karny (thysanoptera: thripidae) and aphis gossypii (glover) (homoptera: aphididae) on plantations of the eggplant (solanum melongena) in two regions of minas gerais, brazil. higher numbers of a. gossypii/leaf and t. palmi/leaf were observed in plantations of this eggplant in the municipalities of vi?osa and guidoval, respectively. guidoval had a rainy and hotter weather than vi?osa. t. palmi was almost positivelly correlated with rainfall (r= 0.49, p= 0.0538) while a. gossypii seemed to be more affected by mean temperature (r= -0.31; p= 0.1134). higher number of aphids in eggplants in vi?osa than in guidoval could be explained by the higher number of natural enemies such as adialytus spp. (hymenoptera: braconidae), cycloneda sanguinea (l.) and exochomus bimaculosus mulsant (coleoptera: coccinellidae) and chrysoperla spp. (neuroptera: chrysopidae) in this municipality. however, only adialytus spp. was significativelly correlated with aphid populations. higher number of t. palmi in eggplant plantations of guidoval than in vi?osa could be due to the absence of its possible eulophidae parasitoid in the first municipality. the spiders were significativelly correlated with this pest in both municipalities.
Calcium silicate and organic mineral fertilizer applications reduce phytophagy by Thrips palmi karny (Thysanoptera: thripidae) on eggplants (Solanum melongena L.)
Dia de Almeida,Gustavo; Pratissoli,Dirceu; Cola Zanuncio,José; Bernardo Vicentini,Victor; Mathias Holtz,Anderson; Serr?o,José Eduardo;
Interciencia , 2008,
Abstract: thrips palmi karny (thysanoptera: thripidae) is a phytophagous insect associated with the reduction of eggplant productivity. the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of calcium silicate and/or an organic mineral fertilizer, together or separately, in increasing the resistance of eggplants to t. palmi. the treatments were calcium silicate, organic mineral fertilizer, calcium silicate associated with this fertilizer and the control. mortality and number of lesions caused by nymphs of this insect on eggplant leaves were evaluated after 3, 6, 9 and 12 leaf applications of these products. the calcium silicate and the organic mineral fertilizer reduced both the population of t. palmi and the damage caused by its nymphs, suggesting a possible increase in eggplant resistance to this pest as a result of the treatments.
Effect of Watermelon Silver Mottle Virus on the Life History and Feeding Preference of Thrips palmi  [PDF]
Wei-Te Chen, Chien-Hao Tseng, Chi-Wei Tsai
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102021
Abstract: Thrips-borne tospoviruses cause numerous plant diseases that produce severe economic losses worldwide. In the disease system, thrips not only damage plants through feeding but also transmit causative agents of epidemics. In addition, thrips are infected with tospoviruses in the course of virus transmission. Most studies on the effect of tospoviruses on vector thrips have focused on the Tomato spotted wilt virus–Frankliniella occidentalis system. Thus, we focused on another thrips-borne tospovirus, Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV), to examine the effect of virus infection on its vector, Thrips palmi. In this study, the direct and indirect effects of WSMoV on the life history traits and feeding preference of T. palmi were examined. The survival rate and developmental time of the WSMoV-infected larval thrips did not differ significantly from those of the virus-free thrips. Comparing the developmental time of larval thrips fed on the healthy plants, thrips-damaged plants, and thrips-inoculated plants (the WSMoV-infected plants caused by thrips feeding), feeding on the thrips-damaged plants reduced the developmental time, and the WSMoV infection in host plants partially canceled the effect of thrips damage on the developmental time. In addition, no significant variations between the virus-free and WSMoV-infected adult thrips regarding longevity and fecundity were observed. These results implied that WSMoV did not directly affect the life history traits of T. palmi, but the WSMoV infection indirectly affected the development of T. palmi through the virus-infected plants. Furthermore, feeding preference tests indicated that T. palmi preferred feeding on either the thrips-damaged plants or the thrips-inoculated plants to the healthy plants. The effect of tospoviruses on the life history and feeding preference of vector thrips might vary among host plants, virus species, vector species, and environmental factors.
Rodríguez,H; Ramos,Mayra; Surís,Moraima;
Revista de Protecci?3n Vegetal , 2007,
Abstract: in order to determine the importance of predatory mites in the regulation of thrips palmi populations, 95 samplings were carried out in 23 different crops from may 1997 to december 2000 in la habana and ciudad de la habana provinces. twenty five leaves or 10 flowers damaged with thrips were taken. species richness of the predatory mites was determined. two crops of solanum tuberosum, localized in san josé de las lajas and güira de melena municipalities were compared through ecological indexes. other qualitative and quantitative observations were carried out in field and laboratory. twenty four predatory mite species belonging to phytoseiidae, blattisociidae, ascidae and laelaptidae family were identified. the phytoseiidae family was the most representative with 20 species, generally with generalist food habit. san josé de las lajas potato crops presented the highest species richness and diversity. the implications of these results for t. palmi management are discussed.
Caracterización de genotipos de fríjol ( Phaseolus vulgaris ) por su resistencia a Thrips palmi (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) Characterization of dry bean genotypes ( Phaseolus vulgaris )for resistance to Thrips palmi (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)
Revista Colombiana de Entomología , 2003,
Abstract: Con el fin de identificar fuentes de resistencia a Thrips palmi Karny en fríjol ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) se hicieron tres experimentos en condiciones de campo e infestación natural en el municipio de Pradera (Valle del Cauca, Colombia). En el primero, se caracterizaron por resistencia al insecto 38 genotipos en un dise o de bloques al azar. En los otros dos experimentos, se utilizaron nueve genotipos en dise os de parcelas divididas; en un caso la parcela mayor fue niveles de fertilización, y en el otro niveles de protección química. Se detectó variabilidad al ataque de T. palmi en los genotipos evaluados. La distribución del insecto en el campo fue agregada. Las poblaciones estuvieron directamente relacionadas con el da o causado a la planta y, éste incidió negativamente en la adaptación reproductiva y en los rendimientos. Los genotipos Brunca, BH 21134-5, EMP 486, BAT 477, FEB 115 y BH 21134-60 mostraron resistencia al insecto a través de los experimentos. Sin embargo, es necesario hacer otros estudios para conocer cuál o cuáles mecanismos de resistencia (antixenosis, antibiosis o tolerancia) están presentes en ellos. No hubo efecto de las condiciones nutricionales en la expresión de resistencia. Las pérdidas causadas por T. palmi oscilaron entre 11,9 y 65,1%. FEB 115, BH 21134-5, EMP 486, BH 21134-60 y Brunca estuvieron por debajo del índice de susceptibilidad promedio del experimento; genotipos con índices bajos tienen mayor tolerancia al da o y menores pérdidas. Es necesario realizar más trabajos de investigación con el fin de descifrar los mecanismos de resistencia a los trips en genotipos resistentes. To identify sources of resistance to Thrips palmi Karny in dry beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.), three field trials were conducted in Pradera (Cauca Valley, Colombia) under heavy natural infestation. In the first trial, 38 genotypes were characterized for resistance to T. palmi in a completely randomized block design. In the other two trials, nine genotypes were used in a split-plot design. In one case, the main plot was fertilization level; while in the other, chemical protection was the main plot. Variation in T. palmi attack was detected in the genotypes tested. Thrip populations showed an aggregate pattern of distribution and had a significant effect on damage levels to plants. Damage negatively affected reproductive adaptation and yield plants. Genotypes Brunca, BH 21134-5, EMP 486, BAT 477, FEB 115 y BH 21134-60 showed resistance to Thrips in the experiments. Fertilization levels did not have an effect on resistance expression. Losses due to Thr
Umbral de acción para Thrips palmi (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) en habichuela en el Valle del Cauca, Colombia Action threshold for Thrips palmi (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on snap beans in the Cauca Valley, Colombia  [cached]
Revista Colombiana de Entomología , 2003,
Abstract: Desde la introducción de Thrips palmi Karny a Colombia, éste se convirtió en una de las principales plagas de la habichuela en el Valle del Cauca y es hoy objeto de excesivo uso de insecticidas para su control. Una de las formas de racionalizar el uso de insecticidas es hacer las aplicaciones en un nivel de infestación crítico conocido como umbral de acción. Con el objetivo de desarrollar un umbral de acción para T. palmi, se realizaron tres ensayos en Pradera (980 msnm, 23°C). Dos de los experimentos se hicieron usando un dise o de bloques completos al azar. El tercero fue en cuadrado latino. Se midió la respuesta de la habichuela a niveles crecientes de infestación, desde 1 hasta 17 adultos/folíolo. Se encontró una relación negativa entre los niveles de infestación y los rendimientos la cual, en promedio de tres ensayos, se ajusta a la regresión y = 12926 - 695.9x. Utilizando la función de pérdida de 695.9 kg/ha por adulto/ folíolo se calculó un umbral de acción promedio de 7.0 adultos/folíolo. Se discute el uso potencial de este umbral de acción dentro de un sistema de manejo de trips. Since its introduction to Colombia in 1997, the melón thrips, Thrips palmi Karny, has become one of the main pests of snap beans in the Cauca Valley. At present, this species is the target of excessive use of insecticides. One way to rationalize the use of pesticides is to apply them at critical infestation levéis, known as action thresholds. To develop an action threshold for T. palmi, two complete randomized blocks triáis and one in Latin square design were conducted in Pradera (980 meters above sea level, 23 °C). In these experiments, snap bean response to increasing infestation levéis (1-17 adults/leaflet) was measured. A negative relationship was found between infestation levéis and yields that can be explained by the regression y = 12926 - 695.9x, average of three triáis. Usinga loss function of 695.9 kg/ha per adult/leaflet, an average action threshold of 7.0 adults per leaflet was calculated. When infestation levéis were maintained below this threshold, actual infestation levéis through the crop cycle ranged from 3 to 4 adults/leaflet. The potential use of this action threshold in a management system is discussed.
Muestreo secuencial con niveles fijos de precisión para Thrips palmi (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) en papa
Revista Colombiana de Entomología , 2005,
Abstract: starting from the knowledge of the spatial pattern of thrips palmi karny populations collected in potato fields (solanum solanum l.) under production conditions and indicators for their description. estimated by means of 1ylor?s power law, a fixed-precision-level sequential sampling plan was designed. the results were validated with 46 sets of fleid data and the efficiency was demonstrated from the same group by reducing the sample size 34% as indicated by the ministry of agriculture in the phytosanitary defense program for potato. it is proposed that this sampling procedure be incorporated into the existing integrated management program for the monitoring of this important agricultural pest.
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