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First isolation and identification of H1N1 swine influenza viruses in Colombian pig farms  [PDF]
Gloria Consuelo Ramirez-Nieto, Cesar Augusto Diaz Rojas, Victor Julio Vera Alfonso, Jairo Jaime Correa, Jose Dario Mogollon Galvis
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.430150
Abstract: The pig industry in Colombia has grown 30% in the last decade achieving high levels of technology and efficiency; in spite of that, respiratory diseases remain a constraint. Since 1970, serological evidence and histological findings suggested the role of swine influenza virus (SIV) as part of the porcine respiratory disease complex; nevertheless, elusive and molecular typing isolates are missing. This study was aimed at isolating SIV from intensive pig farms and to achieve molecular characterization to determine strains circulating in the field. In order to accomplish this goal, 242 samples were taken from nasal swabs, 25 from bronchial washes and 8 from lung tissue. Samples were collected during a period of three years, between 2008 and 2010 and were originated from 78 farms of the three main pig production regions of the country. The samples were transported in BHI broth with 2% antibiotic and antimycotic solution and stored at –70?C until processed. The swabs were inoculated in 9 - 11 days old embryo chicken eggs and in MDCK (Madin Darby Canine Kidney) cell cultures with the addition of trypsin. The isolates were identified by the HA (hemoagglutination) test and by RT-PCR targeting the HA (hemagglutinin), NA (Neuraminidase) and M (Matrix) genes. Full length sequence of the HA and NA glycoproteins from four selected virus isolates was conducted (Macrogen?. USA). As a result, fifteen SIV isolates from nine farms distributed in the three regions were obtained. Twelve of the isolates are related to the swine origin H1N1 virus that caused the 2009 influenza pandemic. The remaining three viruses were related to classical swine influenza viruses.
Swine influenza virus infection dynamics in two pig farms; results of a longitudinal assessment
Meritxell Simon-Grifé, Gerard E Martín-Valls, María J Vilar, Núria Busquets, Mercedes Mora-Salvatierra, Theo M Bestebroer, Ron AM Fouchier, Margarita Martín, Enric Mateu, Jordi Casal
Veterinary Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1297-9716-43-24
Abstract: Swine influenza (SI) is caused by Influenzavirus type A. In pigs, the disease is reported to be very similar to human influenza: high fever (40.5-41.7°C), lethargy, coughing and laboured breathing, anorexia and weight loss [1,2]. Sneezing, conjunctivitis, nasal discharge and abortions may also be observed [2]. SI-associated gross lung lesions observed in pigs are mainly those of a viral pneumonia, and are characterized by a broncho-intersticial pneumonia (BIP) [3].Pigs can be infected with avian, swine and human influenza A viruses, and for that reason, swine has been classically proposed to be the mixing vessel where reassortant influenza strains can arise [4,5]. Although this "mixing vessel" concept is now narrower than some years ago, the recent emergence of a human pandemic influenza A virus harbouring genes thought to be originally of swine origin stressed again the interest in the epidemiology of influenza in pigs [6].Traditionally, the entry of a new influenza virus in a herd was considered to cause the appearance of the clinical signs in a high percentage of animals [3]. However, Swine Influenza Virus (SIV) seems to be more widespread in pigs than previously thought [7]. Besides, the fact that the incidence of confirmed clinical outbreaks of influenza in pigs is relatively low suggests that in most cases, infections are of a subclinical nature [8-10]. On the other hand, although the persistence of SIV activity after an acute outbreak has been described [11], and the existence of endemically infected herds has been postulated [3,7], the establishment of endemic infections in swine herds has never been demonstrated. Beyond the picture of a classic epidemic outbreak, there is very little knowledge about the dynamics of SIV within pig farms.The aim of the present study was to assess the dynamics of influenza virus infection in pig farms, through serological and virological follow-ups of two whole batches of pigs from two commercial farrow-to-finish pig farms.Thi
Welfare and biosecurity standards for dairy cow and pig farms: Cattle and swine rearing conditions  [PDF]
Hristov Slav?a,Stankovi? Branislav M.,Petrujki? Tihomir
Veterinarski Glasnik , 2009, DOI: 10.2298/vetgl0906369h
Abstract: In this paper the essential elements concerning cattle and swine rearing and growing conditions were given in order to establish welfare and biosecurity standards. These elements were formed according to detailed annual investigations on 11 cattle and 5 swine farms and include relevant spatial, microclimate and hygienic conditions. In order to establish welfare standards, certain spatial conditions have higher importance, such as correct construction and maintenance of beds, pens and yards, and type and quality of materials used to build beds and walls. It is necessary to enable movement of animals in stables and yards as basic physiological and ethologic needs, according to latest scientific data. Also, optimal temperature, relative humidity and air velocity insuring have to be considered, as well as quality ventilation in order to establish and preserve optimal microclimate conditions. Also, it must be pointed out that hygiene maintenance of stable surfaces and animal bodies on a regular bases is essential. Basic principles and criteria for welfare level assessment are given in this paper. According to results obtained in previous investigations, special attention is given to possibilities to correct rearing and growing conditions in cattle and swine farms in our country. .
Feed-borne Outbreak of Salmonella Cubana in Swedish Pig Farms: Risk Factors and Factors Affecting the Restriction Period in Infected Farms
J ?sterberg, I V?gsholm, S Boqvist, S Sternberg Lewerin
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1751-0147-47-13
Abstract: The median restriction time for all 49 farms was 17 weeks. An increased risk for farms being salmonella infected (positive in feed and/or faeces) was seen for fattening farms and farms feeding soy. The survival analysis showed that herds with a low level of infection and farms with a high hygiene level had shorter restriction times.This study is unique as it investigates a real outbreak of feed-borne salmonella, where the source of infection was reliably identified, the period of exposure could be defined and data were collected from all exposed farms.In Sweden, only a few cases of salmonella in food-producing animals are reported each year [19,13,3,14]. This situation can be attributed to the organised Swedish salmonella control that started in 1961 to ensure safe animal products for human consumption. All findings of Salmonella spp. in feed, animals or food of animal origin are notifiable by law and action is always taken to eliminate the infection. Whenever salmonella is isolated, a prompt investigation and trace-back of the infection is performed and infected herds are put under restrictions, regardless of serotype. A clean-up plan is instituted and approved by the Swedish Board of Agriculture. Thorough cleaning and disinfection of the premises and all possibly contaminated areas are performed. Animal movements and spreading of manure are restricted. The herd is not declared free from infection until all animals in the herd are negative in two consecutive faecal samplings one month apart, and adequate cleaning and disinfection have been completed.In May 2003, Salmonella Cubana was detected in faecal samples from a routine sampling in a fattening pig herd. Through trace-back from the pig herd, contamination with S. Cubana was discovered in the swine feed production line of a Swedish feed plant. Investigations revealed that 77 pig farms had received feed during the critical period, when the contamination of the feed line was still undetected (from the end of April
Evidencia Serológica de infección por el virus de influenza porcina en granjas de cerdos en Venezuela Serological Evidence of Swine Influenza Virus Infection on Venezuelan Pig Farms
Oneyda J. Ramírez,A. Boulanger,A. Moscardi
Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias , 2005,
Abstract: La influenza porcina (IP) es una de las enfermedades respiratorias de mayor prevalencia en los cerdos en el ámbito mundial, causa brotes de gripe en los reba os y usualmente pocos cerdos mueren. La mortalidad se incrementa si la influenza se presenta como parte del síndrome del complejo respiratorio porcino (CRP). En Venezuela, se ha demostrado la presencia de infecciones tales como el síndrome respiratorio y reproductivo porcino (SRRP), coronavirus respiratorio porcino (CRP), virus de Aujeszky y síndrome multisitémico de emaciación post-destete; no existiendo reportes de infección por el virus de influenza porcina. El objetivo de este trabajo fue demostrar la presencia de anticuerpos contra el virus de influenza porcina (VIP) subtipos H1N1 y H3N2 en granjas de cerdos de Venezuela, mediante la prueba de inhibición de la hemoaglutinación (IH). Se evaluaron 305 muestras de suero de cerdos provenientes de 10 granjas ubicadas en diferentes estados de Venezuela: Anzoátegui, Aragua, Carabobo, Cojedes, Guárico, Miranda y Zulia. Las muestras de sangre fueron tomadas a185 lechones en fase de crecimiento - finalización y 120 muestras de madres. Los anticuerpos específicos para el subtipo H1N1 (3/10) y H3N2 (4/10) fueron detectados en 7 de las 10 granjas. El subtipo H1N1 fue detectado en 7,9% (24/305) de los sueros y el subtipo H3N2 fue positivo en 8,2% (25/305) de los sueros. El análisis serológico evidenció anticuerpos contra el VIP, subtipos H1N1 y H3N2, pudiéndose inferir que la presencia de los animales positivos es producto de una infección natural ya que, para el momento del ensayo, no existen vacunas autógenas ni comerciales contra la enfermedad en Venezuela. Swine influenza is one of the most prevalent respiratory diseases in swine throughout the world. Swine influenza causes coughing outbreaks in the herds. Few swine usually die, but deaths increase if the influenza occurs as part of the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) syndrome. In Venezuelan has been demonstrated the presence of porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome (PRRS) infection, porcine respiratory coronavirus and Aujeszky’s disease infection; there is not report of the presence of swine influenza virus (SIV) infection. The aim of this paper was to demonstrate the presence of H1N1 and H3N2 SIV antibodies in Venezuelan pig farms using hemagglutination inhibition test (HI). A total of 305 serum samples from 10 farms of 7 different states throughout Venezuela: Anzoátegui, Aragua, Carabobo, Cojedes, Guárico, Miranda and Zulia. Blood samples were colleted from 185 growing to finis
Variability of production characteristics of swine in farms in Serbia  [PDF]
Petrovi? Milica,Teodorovi? Milan,Radojkovi? Dragan,Radovi? Ivan
Veterinarski Glasnik , 2002, DOI: 10.2298/vetgl0202089p
Abstract: Work on pig enhancement will continue to deal with improving reproduction characteristics, growth characteristics, feed utilization, trunk and meat quality, and management confidence. On the one hand, adequate methods of quantitative and mollecular genetics will be used, and on the other there will be efforts to increase probability that genetic potential of the animal is exhibited in practical conditions. The objective of this work was to see how and to what extent genetic potential in swine is exhibited in practical conditions. The variability of production characteristics of swine in farms in the Republic of Serbia was examined during a period of 10 years (1991-2000). Reproductive, fattening and trunk quality characteristics varied among farms, genotypes and year of investigation. The average revealed analyzed characteristics in swine are not satisfactory. There is a wide range in the variation of all characteristics among the farms. There are differences between the characteristics of the same swine genotype with regard to the tendency they exhibit per year or farm. Some of them have not shown a clear tendency to increase or reduce, but varied from year to year. The effects of selection and cross-breeding differed considerably.
Risk factors for post-weaning diarrhoea on piglet producing farms in Finland
Taina M Laine, Tapani Lyytik?inen, Maija Yliaho, Marjukka Anttila
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1751-0147-50-21
Abstract: The data of a follow-up study of 73 conventional piglet producing farms was used in the case-control study. The selection of the 41 PWD case and 28 control farms was based on the use of antimicrobials for treating diarrhoea in weaned pigs and the answers related to the occurrence of diarrhoea after weaning in the questionnaire. Four intermediate farms were excluded from the statistical analysis.Altogether 39 factors related to herd characteristics, weaner pig management and pig health were studied. The median number of sows was 59.0 (IQR = 44.0; 74.5) and 52.5 (IQR = 36.8; 61.5) on the case and the control farms, respectively.The significances of the univariable associations between the explanatory variables and the outcome variable were tested, and in the multivariate analysis quasibinomial generalized linear models were applied.An increased risk of PWD was associated with the regimen of twice a day feeding and feed restriction after weaning (P = 0.02; compared to feeding three or more meals a day or the use of ad libitum feeding) and with a higher number of sows on the farm (P = 0.02; risk increasing with increasing number of sows). Automatic temperature control was associated with a decreased risk of PWD (P = 0.03; compared to manual temperature control).Twice a day feeding of newly-weaned pigs should be avoided if the amount of feed given is restricted. Variation in ambient temperature should be minimized in housing of newly-weaned pigs and this can be achieved by using automatic temperature control. With increasing number of sows in the herds the risk of PWD increases and more attention should be paid to prevention of post-weaning diarrhoea.Antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic bacteria is a global threat and therefore increasing attention is being paid to the prudent use of antibiotics in food-producing animals [1]. Gastrointestinal diseases of growing pigs are economically important for pig production worldwide [2] and enteric bacterial infections are often
Comparación de técnicas diagnósticas de tuberculosis porcina en dos establecimientos de cría confinada en Argentina Comparison of swine tuberculosis diagnostics tests in two confinement pig farms in Argentina  [cached]
G.G. Magnano,M.O. Schneider,C.E. Urbani,A. Ambrogi
InVet , 2010,
Abstract: El diagnóstico de tuberculosis en animales vivos se realiza casi exclusivamente mediante la prueba intradérmica tuberculínica (IDR), aunque en los porcinos son escasos los reportes de resultados utilizando dicha técnica. El objetivo de este trabajo fue comparar resultados obtenidos realizando la IDR en porcinos con hallazgos patológicos y microbiológicos. Se tuberculinizaron 307 hembras con DPP aviar y DPP bovino. Del total, 171 se inspeccionaron a la faena tomando muestras para exámenes bacteriológicos e histopatológicos. Los resultados de la IDR fueron: 14.4% (44) positivos a DPP aviar, 1.9% (6) a DPP bovino, 3.9% (12) a ambos DPP y 79.8% (245) negativos. Cuatro muestras fueron positivas al cultivo, tipificándose como Mycobacterium bovis, M. avium, M. flavescens y M. scrofulaceum. En la observación macroscópica e histopatológica no se hallaron lesiones compatibles. Concluimos que la IDR sería útil para indicar una infección predial aunque tendría limitaciones en el diagnóstico individual y en el estudio comparativo con la presencia de lesiones y aislamiento del agente. The diagnosis of tuberculosis in live animals is carried out using primarily by the tuberculin test (TT), however only few reports only show the results of this diagnostic test in swine. The objective of this study was to compare the TT with pathological and microbiological findings in swine. A total of 307 sows were injected with avium PPD and bovine PPD following the standard technique. Tissues samples for bacteriological tests and histological exams were collected from 171 animals after slaughter. The following results were obtained: 14.4% (44) tested positive to avium PPD, 1.9% (6) to bovine PPD, 3.9% (12) to both PPD and 79.8% (245) were negatives. Only 4 samples were culture positives typified by Mycobacterium bovis, M. avium, M. fl avescens y M. scrofulaceum. Neither macroscopic nor histological examinations revealed lesions compatible with TB.
Porcine Respiratory Pathogens in Swine Farms Environment in Mexico  [PDF]
Victor M. Loera-Muro, Abraham Loera-Muro, Marcela Morfín-Mata, Mario Jacques, Francisco J. Avelar-González, Flor Ramírez-Castillo, Elsa M. Ramírez-López, Alma L. Guerrero-Barrera
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2014.44025
Abstract: Respiratory pathogens are the main health problem in the swine industry worldwide. These pathogens are transmitted by direct contact between animals or by aerosols and however are not well known yet, if the environment works as its reservoir, inoculum and/or dispersion medium. The objective of this study was to determine the presence of respiratory pathogens in environmental samples from swine farms in Aguascalientes, Mexico, through of PCR and RT-PCR techniques. The bacteria Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida were found viable in samples from water, food, soil and air. Streptococcus suis was found in a viable state in water samples. Haemophilus parasuis, Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus and Swine Influenza virus (H1N1 and H3N2) were detected in drinking water samples. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2) were not detected in environmental samples. These results suggest that the environment of the farms acts as a reservoir, inoculum and/or vehicle of dispersion for these pathogens except for M. hyopneumoniae and PCV2.
Fate of tetracyclines in swine manure of three selected swine farms in China
Min Qiao,Wangda Chen,Jianqiang Su,Bing Zhang,Cai Zhang,
Min Qiao
,Wangda Chen,Jianqiang Su,Bing Zhang,Cai Zhang

环境科学学报(英文版) , 2012,
Abstract: Veterinary antibiotics can enter the environment due to the common practice of land application of manure from treated animals. The environmental fate of tetracyclines in swine manure after composting and field application remains largely unknown. This study analyzed the concentrations of tetracyclines in manure, manure-based compost and compost amended soil in selected swine farms from Beijing, Jiaxing and Putian, China to determine the dilution effects of antibiotics when released into the soil environment. The results demonstrate that residues of antibiotics were detected in all samples and chlortetracycline as well as its degradation products should be regarded critically concerning their potential ecotoxicity. Application of manure-based compost to soil could reduce the possible risk posed by antibiotic contamination, but the trigger value of 100 μupg/kg was still exceeded in soil samples (776.1 μupg/kg dw) from Putian City after application of compost. Field studies such as the present one can help to improve the routine administration of antibiotic-containing composted manure.
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