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Two cases of Saint Louis encephalitis in HIV-1 infected patients in Buenos Aires
Viloria, Guillermo Alberto;Kundro, Mariana Angelica;Toibaro, Javier Jose;Seijo, Alfredo;Losso, Marcelo Horacio;
Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-86702011000600019
Abstract: saint louis encephalitis virus (sle) is a mosquito borne disease. only a small proportion of cases progress to severe clinical forms. there have been few reports on hiv-infected patients and the relationship between immunodeficiency and the course of the disease remains unclear. herein we describe two cases of sle in hiv-1-infected patients in buenos aires city.
Serologic evidence of the recent circulation of Saint Louis encephalitis virus and high prevalence of equine encephalitis viruses in horses in the Nhecolandia sub-region in South Pantanal, Central-West Brazil
Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex;Tavares, Fernando Neto;Costa, Eliane Veiga da;Burlandy, Fernanda Marcicano;Murta, Michele;Pellegrin, Aiesca Oliveira;Nogueira, Márcia Furlan;Silva, Edson Elias da;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762010000600017
Abstract: as in humans, sub-clinical infection by arboviruses in domestic animals is common; however, its detection only occurs during epizootics and the silent circulation of some arboviruses may remain undetected. the objective of the present paper was to assess the current circulation of arboviruses in the nhecolandia sub-region of south pantanal, brazil. sera from a total of 135 horses, of which 75 were immunized with bivalent vaccine composed of inactive eastern equine encephalitis virus (eeev) and western equine encephalitis virus(weev) and 60 were unvaccinated, were submitted to thorough viral isolation, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and neutralization tests for saint louis encephalitis virus (slev), eeev, weev and mayaro virus (mayv). no virus was isolated and viral nucleic-acid detection by rt-pcr was also negative. nevertheless, the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies in horses older than seven months was 43.7% for slev in equines regardless of vaccine status, and 36.4% for weev and 47.7% for eeev in unvaccinated horses. there was no evidence of mayv infections. the serologic evidence of circulation of arboviruses responsible for equine and human encephalitis, without recent official reports of clinical infections in the area, suggests that the nhecolandia sub-region in south pantanal is an important area for detection of silent activity of arboviruses in brazil.
Isolation of Saint Louis Encephalitis Virus from a Horse with Neurological Disease in Brazil  [PDF]
Roberta Rosa,Erica Azevedo Costa,Rafael Elias Marques,Taismara Simas Oliveira,Ronaldo Furtini,Maria Rosa Quaresma Bomfim,Mauro Martins Teixeira,Tatiane Alves Paix?o,Renato Lima Santos
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002537
Abstract: St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) is a causative agent of encephalitis in humans in the Western hemisphere. SLEV is a positive-sense RNA virus that belongs to the Flavivirus genus, which includes West Nile encephalitis virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, Dengue virus and other medically important viruses. Recently, we isolated a SLEV strain from the brain of a horse with neurological signs in the countryside of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The SLEV isolation was confirmed by reverse-transcription RT-PCR and sequencing of the E protein gene. Virus identity was also confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence using commercial antibodies against SLEV. To characterize this newly isolated strain in vivo, serial passages in newborn mice were performed and led to hemorrhagic manifestations associated with recruitment of inflammatory cells into the central nervous system of newborns. In summary this is the first isolation of SLEV from a horse with neurological signs in Brazil.
Review on Infections of the Central Nervous System by St. Louis Encephalitis, Rocio and West Nile Flaviviruses in Brazil, 2004-2014  [PDF]
Mario Luis Garcia de Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2014.413106
Abstract: Rocio (ROCV), Saint Louis encephalitis (SLEV) and West Nile (WNV) are Flavivirus (Flaviviridae) probably carried by birds and transmitted by Culex mosquitoes. We show here a review on infections of the central nervous system by St. Louis Encephalitis, Rocio and West Nile Flaviviruses in Brazil, 2004-2014. In the last 10 years, serologic surveys in horses showed high proportions of seropositive animals which point out that SLEV and ROCV have circulated infecting horses in west-central, southeast and other regions of Brazil and that WNV has been introduced into Brazil and circulates mostly in Pantanal region. However humans infected by WNV have not been reported. In the State of Sao Paulo: SLEV was isolated from a case clinically diagnosed as dengue in 2004; in 2006, 6 SLEV patients including 3 cases of menigoencephalitis were reported in the middle of a large epidemic of dengue type 3; and in 2008, 1 patient with acute febrile illness that was IgM-positive for dengue was found infected by SLEV by detection of the virus genome. In 2010, ROCV genome was detected in the cerebrospinal fluids of 2 patients from the northern region with meningoenchephalitis and also AIDS. This was the first report of infections by ROCV in the last 34 years and curiously, it occured more than 2000 km from where the virus was firstly found. It is necessary to improve the surveillance of SLEV, ROCV and WNV in Brazil.
Encefalitis por virus San Luis en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires durante el brote de dengue 2009 Saint Louis encephalitis virus in Buenos Aires city during the outbreak of dengue in 2009
Horacio López,Jorge Neira,María Alejandra Morales,Cintia Fabbri
Medicina (Buenos Aires) , 2011,
Abstract: Se presenta un paciente de 80 a os de edad, residente en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, con diagnóstico serológico para el virus de la encefalitis de San Luis (SLE) durante el brote de dengue ocurrido entre enero y mayo de 2009. Presentaba leucemia linfoide crónica en tratamiento con clorambucilo, cáncer de próstata tratado con hormonoterapia y radioterapia, e imágenes óseas compatibles con metástasis. El estudio del líquido cefalorraquídeo demostró pleocitosis con predominio de mononucleares y proteinorraquia elevada. El resultado de los cultivos para bacterias, hongos y micobacterias, así como el PCR en LCR para herpes virus, HSV, CMV y EBV, fue negativo. Se detectaron anticuerpos IgM para virus SLE tanto en LCR como en muestra de suero, con seroconversión IgG por neutralización en cultivos celulares y resultados negativos para los demás Flavivirus con circulación en Argentina. Se revisan evidencias sobre la presencia de virus de San Luis en nuestro país, y se se ala la importancia de la confirmación diagnóstica y el estudio de otros Flavivirus en casos sospechosos de dengue con presentación grave o atípica. Este trabajo remarca la necesidad de fortalecer tanto la vigilancia epidemiológica del virus SLE, como el control vectorial para prevenir las diferentes infecciones transmitidas por mosquitos y conocer su efecto en Salud Pública en la Argentina. We report the case of a male, 80-year-old resident in the City of Buenos Aires, with a diagnosis of St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) during a countrywide dengue outbreak, from January to May 2009. The patient had a chronic lymphocytic leukemia treated with chlorambucil, prostate cancer (hormone therapy and radiotherapy) and images consistent with bone metastases. Cerebrospinal fluid examination showed pleocytosis with a predominance of mononuclear cells and high protein concentration. Bacteria, fungi and mycobacteria cultures, as well as the PCR for herpes virus, HSV, CMV and EBV, were negative. We confirmed the diagnosis of SLE by detection of IgM antibodies in both CSF and serum sample with IgG seroconversion by neutralization in cell cultures and negative results for other flaviviruses with known circulation in Argentina. We review the evidence for the presence of the St. Louis virus in our country and point to the importance of the diagnosis and the search of other Flavivirus in suspected dengue cases with severe or atypical presentation. This work emphasizes the need to strengthen both the epidemiological surveillance of SLE, and vector control to prevent different infections transmitted by mosquitoes and to
The new borders of Saint Louis Las nuevas fronteras de Saint Louis As novas fronteiras de Saint Louis  [cached]
Fabrice Delsahut
Revista Brasileira de Ciências do Esporte , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/s0101-32892012000300002
Abstract: In 1904 the Olympic and Anthropologic Games in Saint Louis, Missouri, were lost in the chaos of the Louisiana Purchase (Universal) Exposition. Although the expected universal spirit, for a long time Saint Louis expressed racial prejudices of its personal. This paper shows up how Sport Sciences and growing up Anthropology acted together in sense of serving questioned causes like racial ranking and colonization right. They were important in improving a feeling of nation in North American that took in grant sport as part of its constitution. The Universal Exposition and Market of Saint Louis offered new possibilities in definition of technological, racial, geographic and corporal borders. En 1904, en Saint Louis, Missouri, los juegos olímpicos y antropológicos fueron perdidos en el caos de una exposición universal, La Louisiana Purchase Exposition. Pese al espíritu universal que se pretendía ver, Saint Louis reflejó durante mucho tiempo los prejuicios raciales de sus organizadores. A partir de estos hechos, trataremos de mostrar cómo las ciencias del deporte y de la antropología naciente se juntaron al servicio de causas tan discutibles como la jerarquización racial y el derecho a la colonización y contribuyeron de manera importante al nacimiento de una nación norte-americana que tomara a pecho el deporte como parte importante en su constitución. La Feria Exposición Universal Internacional de Saint Louis ofreció así una oportunidad para definir nuevas fronteras tecnológicas, raciales, geográficas y corporales. Em 1904, em Saint Louis, Missouri, os jogos olímpicos e antropológicos perderam-se em meio ao caos de uma exposi o universal, a Louisiana Purchase Exposition. Apesar do pretendido espírito universalista, Saint Louis refletiu durante muito tempo os preconceitos raciais de seus organizadores. Considerando este quadro, mostraremos como as ciências do esporte e a nascente antropologia atuaram em conjunto na defesa de causas t o discutíveis quanto a hierarquiza o racial e o direito de coloniza o, contribuindo de maneira significativa para o nascimento de uma na o norte-americana que encarou o esporte como parte importante de sua constitui o. A Feira Exposi o Internacional de Saint Louis ofereceu, assim, uma oportunidade para a defini o de novas fronteiras tecnológicas, raciais, geográficas e corporais.
Genetic characterization of St. Louis encephalitis virus isolated from human in S?o Paulo, Brazil
Santos, Cecília Luiza Sim?es dos;Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb;Franco, Heitor Moreira;Oshiro, Fabíola Maiumi;Rocco, Iray Maria;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762006000100011
Abstract: the molecular characterization of sph253157, a new strain of st. louis encephalitis virus (slev), isolated in 2004 from the first case of human infection recognized in the state of s?o paulo, brazil, is reported. the patient, presenting a febrile illness without neurological involvement, was hospitalized as a probable case of dengue fever. genomic rna was isolated from the supernatant of c6/36 cells infected with acute phase-serum specimen of the patient and the envelope gene was amplified by reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction. the complete nucleotide sequence of the envelope gene of this isolate was directly sequenced from the amplified products and compared with other brazilian and american slev strains. phylogenetic analyses were carried out under maximum likelihood criterion with outgroups both included and excluded. outgroups comprised four flavivirus of the japanese encephalitis group. phylogeny also included bayesian analysis. the results indicated that the new slev isolate belongs to lineage iii, being closely related to an argentinean strain recovered from culex sp. in 1979. it is concluded that there are at least 3 lineages of slev in brazil.
Molecular characterization of two rocio flavivirus strains isolated during the encephalitis epidemic in s?o paulo state, brazil and the development of a one-step rt-pcr assay for diagnosis
Coimbra, Terezinha Lisieux Moraes;Santos, Raimundo N.;Petrella, Selma;Nagasse-Sugahara, Teresa Keico;Castrignano, Silvana Beres;Santos, Cecília L. Sim?es;
Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de S?o Paulo , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-46652008000200005
Abstract: rocio virus (rocv) was responsible for an explosive encephalitis epidemic in the 1970s affecting about 1,000 residents of 20 coastland counties in s?o paulo state, brazil. rocv was first isolated in 1975 from the cerebellum of a fatal human case of encephalitis. clinical manifestations of the illness are similar to those described for st. louis encephalitis. rocv shows intense antigenic cross-reactivity with japanese encephalitis complex (jec) viruses, particularly with ilheus (ilhv), st. louis encephalitis, murray valley and west nile viruses. in this study, we report a specific rt-pcr assay for rocv diagnosis and the molecular characterization of the span37630 and sph37623 strains. partial nucleotide sequences of ns5 and e genes determined from both strains were used in phylogenetic analysis. the results indicated that these strains are closely related to jec viruses, but forming a distinct subclade together with ilhv, in accordance with results recently reported by medeiros et al. (2007).
Experimental Passage of St. Louis Encephalitis Virus In Vivo in Mosquitoes and Chickens Reveals Evolutionarily Significant Virus Characteristics  [PDF]
Alexander T. Ciota,Yongqing Jia,Anne F. Payne,Greta Jerzak,Lauren J. Davis,David S.Young,Dylan Ehrbar,Laura D. Kramer
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007876
Abstract: St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV; Flaviviridae, flavivirus) was the major cause of epidemic flaviviral encephalitis in the U.S. prior to the introduction of West Nile virus (WNV) in 1999. However, outbreaks of SLEV have been significantly more limited then WNV in terms of levels of activity and geographic dispersal. One possible explanation for these variable levels of activity is that differences in the potential for each virus to adapt to its host cycle exist. The need for arboviruses to replicate in disparate hosts is thought to result in constraints on both evolution and host-specific adaptation. If cycling is the cause of genetic stability observed in nature and arboviruses lack host specialization, then sequential passage should result in both the accumulation of mutations and specialized viruses better suited for replication in that host. Previous studies suggest that WNV and SLEV differ in capacity for both genetic change and host specialization, and in the costs each accrues from specializing. In an attempt to clarify how selective pressures contribute to epidemiological patterns of WNV and SLEV, we evaluated mutant spectra size, consensus genetic change, and phenotypic changes for SLEV in vivo following 20 sequential passages via inoculation in either Culex pipiens mosquitoes or chickens. Results demonstrate that the capacity for genetic change is large for SLEV and that the size of the mutant spectrum is host-dependent using our passage methodology. Despite this, a general lack of consensus change resulted from passage in either host, a result that contrasts with the idea that constraints on evolution in nature result from host cycling alone. Results also suggest that a high level of adaptation to both hosts already exists, despite host cycling. A strain significantly more infectious in chickens did emerge from one lineage of chicken passage, yet other lineages and all mosquito passage strains did not display measurable host-specific fitness gains. In addition, increased infectivity in chickens did not decrease infectivity in mosquitoes, which further contrasts the concept of fitness trade-offs for arboviruses.
Prevalence and the Risk Factors of Renal Insufficiency in the City of Saint Louis in Senegal  [PDF]
Ahmed Tall Lemrabott, Mouhamadou Moustapha Cisse, Elhadji Fary Ka, Sidy Mohamed Seck, Maria Faye, Moussa Sarr, Ngoné Diaba Gaye, Alassane Mbaye, Abdou Niang, Boucar Diouf, Abdoul Kane
Open Journal of Nephrology (OJNeph) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojneph.2015.53013
Abstract: Background: The true scale of renal insufficiency (RI) in Sub-Saharan Africa remains unknown due to the lack of national registries. The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiological characteristics of renal insufficiency in urban areas in Saint Louis of Senegal. Materials and Methods: It is an observational, cross-sectional and descriptive study. The study was conducted during 27 days starting from 3 to 30 May 2010. All senegalese residents of Saint Louis (older than 15 years at the time of the study) in whom creatinine clearance was performed were included in the study. The sampling method used was a systematic random sampling, stratified cluster. The survey was designed by an expert comitee based on STEPS survey of the World Health Organization. RI was defined as a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) < 60 ml/min/1.73m2. Results: Among 1424 people initially selected a final selection of 1416 was made. The sex ratio was 0.45. The mean age was 43.4 ± 17.8 years. The overall prevalence of renal insufficiency according to MDRD (Modification of diet in renal disease) formula was 181 cases or 12.7%. The mean age of the people with renal insufficiency was 47.6 ± 17.4 years. Renal insufficiency was correlated to height blood pressure (p = 0.01) and Physical inactivity (p = 0.0001). The prevalence of renal insufficiency was higher in diabetics (71.4%) and obese people (66.6%) than in non-diabetics (64.9%) and non-obese people (56.5%), although the difference was not statistically significant. Dyslipidemia and smoking were not correlated to the risk of occurrence of IR. Conclusions: This study reports the increasing magnitude of RI and its risk factors in the city of Saint Louis in Senegal. It is imperative to establish à national prevention strategies to avoid the dizzying growth of this scourge.
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