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Consumo, digestibilidade aparente e desempenho de vacas leiteiras alimentadas com concentrado processado de diferentes formas
Wernersbach Filho, Humberto Luiz;Campos, José Maurício de Souza;Assis, Anderson Jorge de;Valadares Filho, Sebasti?o de Campos;Queiroz, Augusto César de;Valadares, Rilene Ferreira Diniz;Lana, Rogério de Paula;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982006000400038
Abstract: the objective of this trial was to study the effects of different forms of concentrate processing on intake, apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients, ruminal degradability of dm and cp, and milk yield and composition. sixteen dairy cows, pure holstein and crossbred, were blocked by production level (30.0 and 20.0 kg/day) and randomly assigned to two latin squares with four periods of 15 days each. diets were isonitrogenous and contained the following forage (corn silage):concentrate ratios: 50:50 and 60:40 (% of dm) for cows yielding 30.0 and 20.0 kg of milk/day, respectively. apparent total tract digestibility of dm was not affected by the different forms of concentrate processing while apparent cp digestibility for cows fed extruded concentrate (72.36%) was lower than that for cows fed grounded concentrate at a forage:concentrate ratio of 50:50. apparent total tract digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (44,35%) was lower (p<0.05) for cows fed extruded concentrate at the lowest forage:concentrate. milk yield was higher for cows fed the extruded diet (29.9 kg/day), at the greatest concentrate level, but no significant differences were observed for cows at the lowest (60:40) concentrate level.
Consumo, digestibilidade aparente, produ??o e composi??o do leite de vacas leiteiras alimentadas com farelo de trigo
Soares, Carla Aparecida;Campos, José Maurício de Souza;Valadares Filho, Sebasti?o de Campos;Valadares, Rilene Ferreira Diniz;Mendon?a, Sandro de Souza;Queiroz, Augusto César de;Lana, Rogério de Paula;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982004000800029
Abstract: the objetives of this research were to detect how many days were necessary to animals adapt to the diets, by measuring intake; to evaluate the effect of crescent levels of wheat middlings as a replacement for corn meal in the diets on the milk production and composition, the intake and apparent digestibilities of dry matter (dm), organic matter (om), neutral detergent fiber (ndf), ether extract (ee), total carbohydrates (tc), crude protein (cp), intake of total digestible nutrient (tdn) and non fiber carbohydrate (nfc), as well as diets economical evaluation. twelve holstein cows were allotted to four balanced 4 x 4 latin square design in accordance with the lactation period. the four experimental diets were formulated to contain 70% corn silage and 30% of concentrate. crescent levels of wheat middlings were used in the concentrate (0, 33, 67 e 100%) as a replacement for corn meal, for the treatment 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. all diets were isoproteics, with aproximately 15% cp. five days was enough for adaptation of the animals to the rations. there was linear increase in the intake of ndf, expressed as kg/day and %lw and linear decrease in the intake of nfc, however there was no change in the intake of dm, om, cp, ee, tc and tdn. the total apparent digestibilities of dm, om, tc and cp presented a linear decrease response, with increasing levels of wheat middlings in the diets. however, the total apparent digestibilities of ee and ndf did not change. the milk production corrected or not for 3.5% fat and milk protein, fat, milk dry matter and deffated milk contents were not influenced by the wheat middlings levels in diets.
Consumo, digestibilidade e produ o de cabras leiteiras alimentadas com dietas contendo diferentes fontes de lipídios = Intake, digestibility and milk production of dairy goats fed with different fat sources
Guilherme de Lira Sobral Silva,Aderbal Marcos de Azevêdo Silva,Giovanna Henriques da Nóbrega,Solange Absal?o Azevedo
Acta Scientiarum : Animal Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: Foram utilizados 12 animais da ra a Saanen, com peso vivo de 35 kg e produ o leiteira de 1,2 kg, para avalia o da suplementa o lipídica sobre o consumo, digestibilidade, produ o e composi o do leite e quatro animais fistulados no rúmen para observa o do pH. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma dieta-controle e três dietas suplementadas com semente de faveleira, torta de faveleira e caro o de algod o. Os dados foram analisados em quadrados latinos 4 x 4, com três repeti es e as análises estatísticas feitas pelo teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. A suplementa o lipídica diminuiu o consumo de matéria seca e da maioria dos nutrientes, com reflexo sobre a produ o e composi o do leite de cabras Saanen. A suplementa o com torta de faveleira e com caro o de algod o pode ser considerada uma boa alternativa alimentar para cabras Saanen. This study used 12 Saanen goats with BW of 35 kg and daily milkproduction of 1.2 kg, in order to evaluate the effect of fat supplementation on the intake, digestibility and milk yield. Four animals were fistulated in the rumen for pH observation. The treatments consisted of a control diet and three diets supplemented with faveleira seed, faveleira cake and cotton seed. The data were analyzed in 4 x 4 chi squares, with three repetitions and the statistical analyses by Tukey's test at 5% probability. Fat supplementation decreases the intake of dry matter and of most nutrients, affecting milk yield and the composition of Saanen goat milk. Supplementation with faveleira cake and cotton seeds can be considered as an alternative feed for those animals.
Intake, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in lactating dairy cows fed diets containing sunflower cake Consumo, digestibilidade dos nutrientes e balan o de nitrogênio em vacas leiteiras alimentadas com dietas contendo torta de girassol  [cached]
Elzania Sales Pereira,Patrícia Guimar?es Pimentel,Greicy Mitzi Bezerra Moreno,Ivone Yurika Mizubuti
Semina : Ciências Agrárias , 2012,
Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of sunflower cake (SC) inclusion in the diets of lactating dairy cows on dry matter (DM) intake, the apparent digestibility of dietary nutrients and nitrogen balance. Eight Holstein-Zebu cows with a milk yield of 20 ± 2 kg/day were allotted to a 4 × 4 replicated Latin square design, where were tested the effects of four levels of SC inclusion (0, 7, 14 and 21% of DM basis). Tifton-85 (Cynodon dactylon) hay was used as roughage in a 60:40 roughage:concentrate ratio. The SC inclusion had no effect on dry matter, crude protein, organic matter (OM) or total carbohydrate (TC) intake (kg/day). However, a quadratic effect (P < 0.05) was detected on neutral detergent fiber and non-fibrous carbohydrate (NFC) intake (kg/day). There were no effects of SC inclusion on OM, TC and NFC digestibility, as well as, for nitrogen balance. It was observed a linear effect for the basal endogenous nitrogen (g/day). Sunflower cake can be recommended as an ingredient in the rations of lactating dairy cows. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de inclus o de torta de girassol (TG) na dieta de vacas em lacta o sobre o consumo de matéria seca (MS), digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes da dieta e balan o de nitrogênio. Oito vacas Girolanda com produ o diária de leite de 20 ± 2 kg/dia foram distribuídas em delineamento em quadrado latino duplo 4x4, em que foram testados os efeitos de quatro níveis de inclus o da TG (0, 7, 14 e 21% MS). Foi utilizado o feno de Tifton-85 (Cynodon dactylon) como volumoso em uma rela o volumoso:concentrado de 60:40. A inclus o de TG n o afetou o consumo (kg/dia) de MS, proteína bruta, matéria organica (OM) e carboidratos totais (CT). Entretanto, foi observado efeito quadrático (P < 0,05) no consumo (kg/dia) de fibra em detergente neutro e carboidratos n o-fibrosos (CNF). N o houve efeito da inclus o de TG na digestibilidade de MO, CT e CNF, assim como para o balan o de nitrogênio. Foi observado efeito linear para o nitrogênio endógeno basal (g/dia). A torta de girassol pode ser recomendada como um ingrediente de ra es para vacas em lacta o.
SUBSTITUTION OF THE TRITURATED CORN GRAIN BY PARBOILED RICE MEAL IN DAIRY COWS DIET: INTAKE AND APPARENT DIGESTIBILITY SUBSTITUI O DO MILHO GR O TRITURADO POR FARELO DE ARROZ PARBOILIZADO NA DIETA DE VACAS LEITEIRAS: CONSUMO E DIGESTIBILIDADE APARENTE  [cached]
Roberto Camargo Wascheck,Pedro Leonardo Rezende,Paulo Cesar Moreira,Ronaldo Braga Reis
Ciência Animal Brasileira , 2008,
Abstract: The research trials were carried to evaluate the effect of replacement of corn by parboiled rice meal in the diet of lactating dairy cows. Nine lactating Holstein cows, 80 ± 24 days in milk, 20 kg of milk per day at beginning of the trial were use in a 3 x 3 latin square design. The experimental diets varied in the concentrate and forage composition: forage based on sorghum silage and concentrate based on corn grain cracked (CGC); forage based on sorghum silage and green corn by-product silage and concentrate based on corn grain cracked and parboiled rice meal in equal parts (CGC + PRM) and forage based on sorghum silage and green corn by-product silage and concentrate in which 79.3% of replacement of corn grain cracked for parboiled rice meal (PRM). The replacement of corn by parboiled rice meal didn’t affect the dry mater, crude protein, mineral mater and starch intakes; the diets with parboiled rice meal had hither intakes of NDF, ADF and ether extract. KEY WORDS: By-product, lipids, lactation period. Desenvolveu-se o experimento para a avalia o do efeito da substitui o do milho por farelo de arroz parboilizado na dieta de vacas leiteiras. Foram utilizadas nove vacas lactantes da ra a Holandês com 80 ± 24 dias de lacta o, com médias de produ o diária de 20 kg de leite, em delineamento quadrado latino 3 x 3, com três repeti es. Os tratamentos variaram em fun o da composi o das dietas: a) volumoso à base de silagem de sorgo e silagem de resíduo de milho verde mais concentrado à base de milho gr o triturado (FM); b) volumoso à base de silagem de sorgo e silagem de resíduo de milho verde mais concentrado com milho gr o triturado e farelo de arroz parboilizado em partes iguais (MA); c) e volumoso à base de silagem de sorgo e silagem de resíduo de milho verde mais concentrado com 79,3% de substitui o do milho gr o pelo farelo de arroz parboilizado (FA). A inclus o de farelo de arroz parboilizado n o interferiu nos consumos diários de matéria seca, proteína bruta, matéria mineral e amido. Os consumos de extrato etéreo, fibra em detergente neutro e fibra em detergente ácido foram superiores para as dietas MA e FA. PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Lacta o, lipídios, subproduto.
Avalia o de diferentes suplementos para vacas mesti as em lacta o alimentadas com cana-de-a úcar: desempenho e digestibilidade
Vilela Márcio da Silva,Ferreira Marcelo de Andrade,Véras Antonia Sherlanea Chaves,Santos Mércia Virginia Ferreira dos
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2003,
Abstract: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o consumo, produ o e composi o do leite, digestibilidade dos nutrientes e eficiência alimentar de vacas mesti as de baixo potencial de produ o, alimentadas com dietas à base de cana-de-a úcar. Foram utilizadas oito vacas mesti as ]! Holandês/Gir com peso vivo médio de 425 kg, após o ter o inicial de lacta o. Os animais foram distribuídos em dois quadrados latinos (4x4), de acordo com a ordem de lacta o e alimentadas com dietas completas à base de cana-de-a úcar, sendo, cana mais uréia (CAU); cana, uréia e farelo de algod o (CFA); cana, uréia e milho (CMM); cana, uréia e farelo de trigo (CFT). Os consumos de matéria seca (MS), fibra em detergente ácido (FDA), fibra em detergente neutro (FDN) e matéria organica (MO) foram superiores para as dietas com farelo de algod o e trigo. O consumo PB foi maior para o CFA em rela o ao CAU. Os consumos de carboidratos totais (CHT), carboidratos n o-fibrosos (CNF) e NDT apresentaram o mesmo comportamento, sendo superior para CFT e CFA em rela o ao CAU. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade da MS e MO foram maiores para a suplementa o com milho, porém a digestibilidade da PB foi superior para o CFA, em rela o aos demais. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade da FDN e CHT foram maiores para o CMM em rela o ao CFA. Porém, o coeficiente de digestibilidade da FDA foi inferior para o CFA. O teor de NDT foi superior para CMM e CAU em rela o aos outros tratamentos, variando de 88,25 a 74,44%. A produ o de leite com corre o para 4,0% de gordura foi inferior para CAU comparada aos demais tratamentos. N o houve altera o nos teores de proteína e gordura do leite. No entanto, o CAU proporcionou as menores produ es de proteína e gordura do leite. O CFA apresentou a menor eficiência alimentar.
Consumo, digestibilidade e parametros ruminais em vacas gestantes alimentadas com silagem de rama de mandioca
Modesto, Elisa Cristina;Santos, Geraldo Tadeu dos;Zambom, Maximiliane Alavarse;Damasceno, Julio Cesar;Branco, Antonio Ferriani;Vilela, Duarte;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982008000500024
Abstract: the objective of this trial was to study the effects of substituting corn silage by cassava foliage silage in the diets of non lactating, pregnant dairy cows. the levels of substitution of corn silage by cassava foliage silage were 0, 20, 40 and 60%. intake and apparent digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, total carbohydrates, no fiber carbohydrates were evaluated, and ph and ruminal ammonia nitrogen before and 2, 4, 6 and 8h after the morning feeding were also evaluated. four non lactating pregnant cows (third trimester of gestation) rumen cannulated were allotted to a 4 × 4 latin square design. the substitution of corn silage by different levels of cassava foliage silage did not affect the intake, digestibilities of nutrients and ruminal parameters, except for crude protein apparent digestibility and ruminal ammonia nitrogen. the crude protein apparent digestibility decreased as the corn silage was substituted by cassava foliage silage. ruminal ammonia nitrogen also showed a linear negative effect eight hours after the morning feeding. the substitution of corn silage by cassava foliage silage, in all studied levels could be used for non lactating, pregnant dairy cows diets because did not change intake, ruminal parameters and digestibility of dry matter and nutrients, except for crude protein and ruminal ammonia nitrogen eight hours after morning feeding.
Consumo, digestibilidade dos nutrientes e comportamento ingestivo de vacas leiteiras alimentadas com castanha de caju
Pimentel, P.G.;Reis, R.B.;Leite, L.A.;Campo, W.E.;Neiva, J.N.M.;Saturnino, H.M;Coelho, S.G.;
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-09352012000300016
Abstract: the effect of the inclusion of cashew nut (cn) at the amounts of 0, 8, 16 e 24% in the concentrate portion of the ration on the intake, apparent digestibility of nutrients and ingestive behavior was evaluated, using eight holstein dairy cows, producing 28±4kg milk/day, allocated in a 4x4 double latin square design. corn silage was used as main forage. the cn contributed with approximately 46.0; 61.8 and 67.7% of total ether extract present in the concentrate when the inclusion levels were 8, 16 and 24%, respectively. the dry matter intake was not altered by the inclusion of cn in the rations, showing mean value of 21.29kg/day. the digestibility of dry matter and nutrients showed variations that were not related to the increased lipid content of the rations. although reductions have been observed in the time spent with dry matter intake, the time spent ruminating enabled the chewing activity to not be affected by fat supplementation. the highest proportion of cn added to the concentrate (24%) did not influence the intake, apparent digestibility and ingestive behavior, so it can be recommended as a potential alternative for feeding dairy cows.
Consumo, digestibilidade e desempenho de novilhas leiteiras alimentadas com dietas contendo torta de dendê
Maciel, Raylon Pereira;Neiva, José Neuman Miranda;Araujo, Vera Lúcia de;Cunha, Odislei Fagner Ribeiro;Paiva, Joseilson;Restle, Jo?o;Mendes, Clayton Quirino;L?bo, Raimundo Nonato Braga;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982012000300033
Abstract: the objective was to evaluate the effects of inclusion of palm kernel cake in the diet on intake, digestibility and performance of dairy heifers. sixteen dairy holstein-zebu crossbred heifers with average age of 13 months and average weight of 183.4±32.5 kg were distributed to four treatments in a completely randomized design with four levels of palm kernel cake (0, 11.9, 22.9 and 34.2% from total dry matter), each one with four replicates. the intake of dry matter (dm), crude protein (cp), neutral detergent fiber (ndf), non-fibrous carbohydrates (nfc), ether extract (ee) and total digestible nutrients (tdn), and the apparent digestibility of dm, cp, ndf, nfc and ee were evaluated. there was linear reduction in dm, cp, ndf, nfc, and tdn intake. the apparent digestibility of dm and ndf reduced with the inclusion of palm kernel cake in the diet, while the apparent digestibility of cp and nfc showed quadratic effect. the inclusion of palm kernel cake in the diets resulted in linear increase in the apparent digestibility of ether extract. weight gain decreased linearly with the inclusion of palm kernel cake in the diet, with values of 1.06, 0.99, 0.89 and 0.54 kg/day for diets containing 0, 11.9, 22, 9 or 34.2% palm kernel cake, respectively. feed conversion was not affected by the inclusion of levels of palm kernel cake. the inclusion of palm kernel cake in the diet reduces nutrient intake and performance of dairy heifers during growth, but when used in levels up to 24.6% of the total diet, it provides weight gain compatible with growth programs aiming calving at 24 months of age.
Silagens de girassol e de milho em dietas de vacas leiteiras: consumo e digestibilidade aparente
Leite, L.A.;Silva, B.O.;Reis, R.B.;Faria, B.N.;Gon?alves, L.C.;Coelho, S.G.;Saturnino, H.M.;
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-09352006000600031
Abstract: the intake and the apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and the intake of crude protein were evaluated in lactating holstein cows fed sunflower silage (ss) in replacement of corn silage (cs) in their diets. five ruminal cannulated cows, 60 to 82 days in milk, were arranged in a 5 x 5 latin square design. the treatments werethe following: 100% corn silage (100cs) and concentrate; 34% sunflower silage plus 66% corn silage (34ss) and concentrate; 66% sunflower silage plus 34% corn silage (66ss) and concentrate; 100% sunflower silage (100ss) and concentrate;and 100% corn silage plus whole cotton seed (cs-wcs) and concentrate. dry matter (17.86kg for 100ss and 21.62kg for 100cs) and organic matter intake (17.5kg for 100ss and 20.2kg for 100cs), intake and apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber were lower for 100ss compared to 100cs (p<0.05). apparent digestibility of organic matter for treatment 100ss was the lowest (54.8%). increasing levels of corn silage in the diets increased the dry matter intake, the organic matter intake and the apparent digestibility. parcial replacement of the corn silage with sunflower silage could be a viable option for lactating cows diets.
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