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Chemical composition and energy value of guava and tomato wastes for broilers chickens at different ages
Lira, Rosa Cavalcante;Rabello, Carlos B?a-Viagem;Silva, Edney Pereira da;Ferreira, Paulo Vanderlei;Ludke, Maria do Carmo Mohaupt Marques;Costa, Edgenes Vital;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982011000500012
Abstract: the chemical composition and energy value of guava and tomato wastes for broilers at different ages were determined in this research. the metabolism assays were carried out by using the methodology of total excreta collection to calculate the chemical composition of wastes collected in different months. a total of 270 cobb broiler chicks was used: 150 in the period from 1 to 8 days of age (phase 1) and 120 chicks were used in the period from 10 to 17 days of age (phase 2). the trials were analyzed as completely randomized design with three treatments with five replications of 10 and 8 birds at the respective ages. the treatments consisted of different diets: one reference diet, one with 30% tomato meal and another with 20% guava meal, both partially replacing the reference diet. the values of the chemical composition of guava and tomato wastes varied according to the collection season. the chemical composition indicated that the wastes can be used in poultry feed, but with high crude fiber contents. the values of apparent metabolizable energy and nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy and of gross energy metabolizability coefficient of guava waste was not affected by the birds age, different from the result observed for tomato waste, whose digestibility coefficients and apparent metabolizable energy values varied among growing phases. the apparent metabolizable energy values (ame) for broilers form 1 to 8 and from 10 to 17 days of age were 1,331 and 1,358 kcal/kg for guava waste and from 2,351 to 2,465 kcal/kg for tomato waste.
Effects of Dietary Different Levels of Hatchery Wastes in Broiler
H. Aghdam Shahriar,K. Nazer-Adl,J. Doolgarisharaf,H. Monirifar
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: This study is presented to investigate the effects of different levels of Hatchery Wastes (HW) in broiler chickens diets. One hundred and eighty days old male chickens were in randomize complete design in to 5 groups and 3 replicates from of 7-56 days age, levels of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8% fed HW in diets. The HW were controlled after processing (drying and eliminating the microbial load). Weight gain and feed intake were measured weekly and period in each replication. Results of the data showed the use of wastes until to the level of 4%, non significant difference in weight gain, feed intake and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) between groups (in various period). Average carcass combination included were significant in breast weight% (p<0.05) and abdominal fat (p<0.01) in between groups and organoliptic quality of the grille breast meat was significant both in males and females (p<0.05). The glucose value of serum was significant in 5 and 8 weeks (p<0.01), but CHOL and TG value were only significant in eighth week (p<0.05). Results showed, we could use from the HW to 4% level after necessary processing in broiler diets.
Effect of Bovine Blood-Rumen Digesta Mixture on Growth Performance, Nutrient Retention and Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Chickens
A. A Odunsi,A .A Akingbade,G.O Farinu
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: A feeding study was conducted to assess the value of abattoir wastes i.e. bovine blood and rumen digesta (Bovine blood-rumen digesta mixture (BBRDM)) on performance, nutrient retention, carcass yield and composition of broiler chickens. BBRDM was incorporated into broiler starter and finisher diets at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% levels in partial replacement of full fat soybean meal (FFSBM). Chemical analysis showed that BBRDM contains 46.1 crude protein (CP), 6.4 crude fibre (CF), 2.1 ether extract (EE), 23.4 ash and 22.0% nitrogen free extractives (NFE). Daily feed intake and daily weight gain decreased with increased BBRDM. Birds on diet containing 20% BBRDM were associated with the lowest and highest feed conversion and mortality, respectively. Dry matter and ether extract retention`s were significantly influenced (p<0.05) whereas the values for crude protein, ash and crude fibre were unaffected (p>0.05) by dietary treatments. Carcass yield and composition were unaffected by treatments, while liver and gizzard weights increased with increased BBRDM inclusion. Inclusion of 15 % level of BBRDM as replacement to FFSBM was found to be a safe level in broiler chickens` starter and finisher diets.
Effects of Different Levels of Hatchery Wastes on the Performance, Carcass and Tibia Ash and Some Blood Parameters in Broiler Chicks  [PDF]
M. Mehdipour,M. Shams Shargh,B. Dastar,S. Hassani
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of Hatchery Wastes (HW) on performance, tibia ash, blood calcium and phosphorus concentrations in broiler chickens. Birds were fed a corn-soybean meal diet for 7 days. The experimental treatments included a corn soybean meal diet and 3 other treatments containing 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5% HW. five replicate groups of 15 Ross 308 broiler chicks were allocated to each dietary treatment. Data were analyzed in a completely randomized design. Results indicated that there were no significant differences in weight gains among different dietary treatments. Feed intake in the 4.5% treatment was significantly higher (p<0.05) and 3% treatment had lower feed intake than the other treatments. The results indicated that feed conversion in the 3% HW treatment was lower in most of the period (p>0.05). Results of carcass analysis showed no significant differences between treatments. Also, there were no significant differences between blood calcium and phosphorous among treatments. The 4.5 and 3.0% hatchery wastes treatments had the highest tibia ash (p<0.05). Based on the result of this experiment, the utilization of hatchery wastes as much as 3% can increase tibia strength without having adverse effect on broilers performance.
Determination of Chemical Composition and Suitable Levels of Wheat Feed Screening and Macaroni Wastes in Broiler Chick Diets  [cached]
A. Gheisari,R. Bahadoran,S. S. Tadayonfar
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2003,
Abstract: In order to study the nutritive value of grades 1 and 2 wheat feed screening and macaroni wastes as energy resources, 360 21-day-old broiler chicks were divided into 36 groups of 10. In this experiment, each experimental levels of feedstuff was used at 0 (control group), 15, 30 and 45%. In addition, their apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn) was determined by Sibbald’s method. Daily feed intake of chicks fed by diets containing macaroni wastes and grade 1 wheat feed screening for 21 to 56 days of age was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.05). In contrast, body weight, daily weight gain and feed conversion had no significant differences during this period. However, in the total experimental period, the best feed conversion belonged to chicks fed with various levels of macaroni wastes and grade 1 wheat feed screening. Apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn) of macaroni wastes and wheat feed screening were 3700, 3270, and 2870 kcal/kg, respectively. According to the results of this experiment, it is possible to use macaroni wastes and grade 1 wheat feed screening at 45% and 30% levels in the diet of broiler chicks, respectively, without any undesirable effects on their performance.
Growth Indices and Economy of Feed Intake of Broiler Chickens Fed Changing Commercial Feed Brands at Starter and Finisher Phases  [PDF]
A.M. Orheruata,S.O. Nwokoro,G.O. Alufohai,B.I. Omagbon
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2006,
Abstract: Growth and feed intake data obtained from broiler chickens were analyzed to determine the effect of changing commercial feed brands on broiler performance. Mean total weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR) and growth efficiency (GE) were influenced by treatment at both starter and finisher phases with birds receiving changing feed brands having higher values. Economics of feed intake showed that feed cost/kg, feed cost/bird and feed cost/kg gain were higher for birds fed changing commercial feed brands at both phases. However, feed to gain ratio was better for birds fed treatment 1 at starter phase and treatment 2 at finisher phase with value of 2.52 and 3.11 respectively. Highest revenue was obtained from birds in treatment 3 and 2 at the starter and finisher phases respectively. Results of growth curve parameter estimates showed that the asymptotic weight of birds increased with the length of frequency of change of feed with a difference of 155g between the control and other treatments. Farmers can therefore use other feed brands once a week as such practice will in no way be detrimental to growth but rather slightly increase growth of the birds.
Feed Based Infectious Bursal Disease Vaccination in Broiler Chickens
M. Hair-Bejo,K. K. Chan,C. C. Wong
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an important viral disease of chickens due to significant economic loses in the industry resulting from high mortality and immunosuppression. An experiment was conducted to determine the efficacy of an attenuated live "intermediate" strain IBD vaccine of Malaysian isolate given to broiler chickens via feed. One hundred and twenty day old broiler chicks were divided into 3 groups namely: group A (feed based IBD vaccination), group B (IBD vaccination via intraocular route) and group C (control). The chickens in groups A and B were vaccinated at day 14 with an attenuated live "intermediate" strain IBD vaccine of Malaysian isolate (104.5EID50/0.1ml) via feed (about 0.1ml/chick) and intraocular route (0.1ml/chick), respectively. Feed and water were given ad libitum, and the chickens were monitored for any clinical abnormalities throughout the trial. Eight chicks in the control group were sacrificed at 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days of age. Eight chickens each from the groups A and B were sacrificed at 21, 28, 35 and 42 days of age. Body weights were taken and serum samples were collected for IBD antibody detection using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) prior to necropsy. On necropsy, the gross lesions were recorded and the bursa of Fabricius was weighed and fixed in 10 % buffered formalin for histopathology examination. The study showed that no clinical sign of IBD observed in all groups throughout the trial. The body weights in all groups were not significantly different (p<0.05). Gross lesions were confined to the bursa of Fabricius at day 21 of age in the group A, and at days 21 and 28 of age in the group B. The bursa weight and bursa to body weight ratio in groups A and B were generally lower than control group throughout the post vaccination period. The lesions scores in group A remained mild to moderate throughout post vaccination period and showed sign recovery at day 42. The lesions score in the group B was moderate at day 21 of age and reduced to mild to moderate thereafter. Both routes of vaccination were able to induce protective immunity against IBD infection at days 35 and 42 of age. It was concluded that the feed based IBD vaccination at 14-day-old broiler chickens using attenuated live "intermediate" strain IBD vaccine of Malaysian isolate is safe and successfully induce protective level of IBD antibody.
Effect of Sex, Level and Period of Feed Restriction During the Starter Stage on Productivity and Carcass Characteristics of Ross 308 Broiler Chickens in South Africa  [PDF]
D.J. Novele,J.W. Ng`Ambi,D. Norris,C.A. Mbajiorgu
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2008,
Abstract: The effects of sex, level and period of feed restriction during the starter period on productivity and carcass characteristics of Ross 308 broiler chickens were evaluated. A 2 (male and female chickens) x 3 (feeding levels: Ad-libitum, 75% and 50% of ad libitum) x 3 (restriction periods of 5, 7 and 9 days) factorial arrangement in a complete randomized design was used. The effects of interactions were not included in the results because earlier analyses including all the interactions showed that they were not important. Level and period of feed restriction during the starter stage had an effect (P<0.05) on live weight of the chickens at 21 days of age. Chickens on 75% ad libitum feeding attained complete live weight compensation with those on Ad-libitum feeding at the age of 42 days. However, chickens on 50% ad libitum feeding did not ‘catch-up’ with those on ad libitum feeding. Differences due to the period of feed restriction during the starter stage were maintained up to the age of 42 days. Male chickens had higher (P<0.05) live weights at 42 days of age. Abdominal fat pad was not affected (P>0.05) by level and period of feed restriction and sex of chickens at 42 days of age.
The Comparison of Early Feed Restriction and Meal Feeding on Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Blood Constituents of Broiler Chickens
H. Mohebodini,B. Dastar,M. Shams Sharg,S. Zerehdaran
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: The present study was conducted to compare the effect of early feed restriction and meal feeding on performance, carcass characteristics and blood constituents of male broilers. Birds fed ad libitum for the 1st week post hatch. Feed restriction schedule was applied from 7-14 or 7-21 days of age. Chickens in treatment 1 fed ad libitum (AL) throughout the experiment. Birds in treatment 2 and 3 were subjected to Quantitative Feed Restriction based on Maintenance (QFRM) or 50% of Growth (QFRG) energy requirements. Birds in treatment 4 and 5 were subjected to quantitative feed restriction based on a meal feed schedule from 7-14 (MF 14) or 7-21 (MF 21) days of age. Five replicate groups of 12 broilers were allocated to each treatment. Results indicated that feed restriction reduced weight gain compared to AL or MF regimes (p<0.05) at the end of experiment. Broilers subjected to feed restriction regimes consumed less feed than either AL or MF (p<0.05). There were no significant differences between MF and AL groups for weight gain and feed intake. At the end of experiment, feed conversion was improved for birds in MF 14. The carcass weight of the control group significantly was higher than feed restricted groups, but was not statistically different from MF groups. Abdominal fat weight was not affected by feeding regimes. Blood constituents, such as triacylglycerol, cholesterol and LDH were affected by feeding regimes (p<0.05). The results of present experiment indicated that quantitative feed restriction from 7-14 days of age resulted to decrease performance and carcass weight in broiler chickens. Meal feeding from 7-14 or 7-21 days of age had no negative effect on the performance and carcass weights of broiler chickens. Lactate dehydrogenase activity was reduced in feed restriction and MF 21 broilers compare to AL broilers.
Lactobacillus as a Probiotic Feed for Chickens  [PDF]
M. Mohamed Mahroop Raja,A. Raja,M. Mohamed Imran
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2009,
Abstract: The present study was carried out to isolate and identify microorganisms as a probiotic feed for chicken. The strains were isolated from gut region of the chick and was inoculated in to the MRS Medium and incubated at 37oC for 48 h under anaerobiosis. The identity of culture was based on the characteristics of Lactobacilli as presented in the Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology using Gram Staining, Motility, Triple Sugar Iron and Fermentation of different carbon sources. Based on the criteria Lactobacillus fermentum tolerated on Inhibitory substances, Temperature and agitation were identified and tested for probiotic use for chickens. Lactobacillus fermentum shows antimicrobial activity and shows the similar effects to antibiotic in the feed. It could be a suitable strain as a probiotic feed for chickens.
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