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Effects of Lime Hydrate on the Growth and Development of Darkling Beetle, Alphitobius diaperinus  [PDF]
D. W. Watson,S. S. Denning,L. Zurek,S. M. Stringham
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2003,
Abstract: The addition of hydrated lime to poultry litter to control insects and pathogens has a history of support. We examined the effects of hydrated lime litter treatments on the darkling beetle, Alphitobius diaperinus and the fungal pathogen Aspergillus. Hydrated lime application rates were calculated as poultry house equivalents; 22.6, 45.4, 56.7, 90.7 kg per 93 m2 (50, 100, 125 and 200 lbs per 1,000 ft2), ground limestone; 22.6 kg per 93 m2 and an untreated control. Among treatment groups, mortality was significantly higher for larvae than for adult beetles. Hydrated lime at the highest rate (90.7 kg per 93 m2) produced 59.1% and 24.6% mortality for larvae and adults, respectively. Limestone did not increase beetle mortality. Darkling beetle mortality was moisture dependent with greatest larval mortality (100%) observed at 90.7 kg/93 m2 and 68% moisture while adult mortality was 58.8%. Effects of lime hydrate on the number of bacterial and Aspergillus colony forming units (CFUs) in treated litter was inconclusive. The impact of hydrated lime on beetles and perhaps pathogens in litter is likely the direct effect of increased pH, however the numbers of beetles, and fungal or bacterial CFUs may increase as pH levels become more neutral.
Defensive Glands of the Darkling Beetle Mesomorphus villiger Blanchard (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)  [PDF]
C. M. Seena,Sabu K. Thomas
Psyche , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/201769
Abstract: Massive home invasion by the darkling beetle Mesomorphus villiger Blanchard 1853 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) during monsoon season make it a nuisance pest in many regions of south India. Morphology of defensive glands and mode of release and dispersal of the defensive secretion were analysed. Defensive glands were separated from the abdominal sternites by cutting along the posterior margin of the seventh sternite. Glands are evaginations of intersegmental membrane between the seventh and eighth sternites consisting of two long sac-like reservoirs, and glandular secretion is released by exudation and spread through epipleural gutter of elytra. Gradual release of the secretion is a strategy to repel the predators for a longer duration. 1. Introduction Darkling beetle, Mesomorphus villiger Blanchard 1853 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae: Opatrini), is of cosmopolitan distribution with occurrence in Indian subcontinent, Afghanistan, Siberia, Australia, and Africa (Madagascar) [1–3]. Nibbling and gnawing at the base of the stem of newly transplanted tobacco seedlings lead to the death of the plants. Hence, they are referred as tobacco ground beetle in tobacco growing belts in India [1, 4]. However, in the Kerala state in south India, they are present in the litter of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis ((Willd. ex Adr. De Jus) Müll. Arg. 1865)), mango (Mangifera indica, Linnaeus 1753), cashew (Anacardium occidentale, Linnaeus 1753), and rain tree (Samanea saman (Jacquin) Merrill 1916) and have strong feeding preference towards fallen tender leaves (personal observation). Home invasion of huge aggregation of M. villiger into residential buildings with the onset of monsoon season, their nocturnal movements and release of an irritating, odoriferous quinonic secretion that causes mild skin burns, makes it a nuisance pest in many regions of the South Western Ghats. Similarities in morphology and the aggregation pattern by M. villiger often lead to its misidentification as rubber litter beetle Luprops tristis (Fabricius, 1801). No data exists on the structure of defensive glands of the genus, and the present study analyses the structure of defensive glands and mode of release and dispersal of the defensive gland secretion in M. villiger. 2. Materials and Methods Aggregated beetles were collected from a residential building at Calicut (11°15′N, 75°50′E), in south India, during the monsoon season. Adults of both sexes were killed using diethyl ether and pinned to a wax tray. Elytra and abdominal tergites were removed to expose the internal structures and observed under a stereo
Temporary Storage of Poultry Broiler Litter
C.C. Mitchell,H.A. Torbert,T.S. Kornecki,T.W. Tyson
Research Journal of Agronomy , 2012,
Abstract: Transportation and storage of poultry broiler litter during the winter months is critical to implementing comprehensive nutrient/waste management plans, but acceptable temporary storage near the site of spreading can be difficult to arrange. Alternative, less expensive methods for temporary storage are needed to encourage more use of poultry litter on cropland, but these methods must be environmentally sound. Two separate studies were initiated to examine alternative methods of litter storage. Treatments included: No litter, litter covered with 6-mil polyethylene plastic, litter covered with commercially available HayGard fabric, an uncovered pile, an uncovered, cone-shaped pile and an uncovered pile treated with a Polyacrylamide (PAM) to prevent water infiltration. Factors studied included litter quality and nutrient runoff. In both studies, the uncovered piles absorbed rainfall but also dried out on the surface rather rapidly in the spring. They also resulted in much higher runoff of ammonium-N, both total and soluble P and all other measured runoff parameters. Covered litter was wet on the surface from condensation under the cover, but generally resulted in less runoff of nutrients and maintained its fertilizer nutrient concentration. Exposed litter rapidly decomposed due to the wetting and drying effect. All litter apparently lost some mass although this was observed and not measured. Results indicate that dry broiler litter must be covered in order to protect litter quality and to prevent extensive nutrient runoff.
Superabsorbent Polymers as a Poultry Litter Amendment  [PDF]
Jennifer R. Timmons,Jeannine M. Harter-Dennis
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2011,
Abstract: Ammonia volatilization from poultry litter commonly causes a buildup of ammonia in the atmosphere of chicken houses that can have a negative impact on both farm workers and birds. The release of ammonia from poultry houses can also contribute to environmental problems such as atmospheric haze. The most widely accepted management strategy to control ammonia volatilization from poultry houses is the use of litter amendments that are added to the litter. The poultry industry routinely uses dry acids such as aluminum sulfate and sodium bisulfate to reduce ammonia emissions inside the poultry house. Although these products are very effective in controlling ammonia release in poultry houses, they typically only work for about the first three weeks of the grow-out period, after which time litter pH and ammonia levels will begin to rise. As a result, these litter amendments must be reapplied prior to the placement of new chicks in order for ammonia levels to continually remain low. Therefore this research was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of an alternative product for long-term control of ammonia release in poultry houses. This research investigated the efficacy of a single application of superabsorbent polymers to poultry litter for long term in-house ammonia control which could reduce the negative impacts of ammonia on bird health and performance and potentially the environment.
Proximate Composition of Heat Treated Poultry Litter (Layers)  [PDF]
O.J. Owen,E.M. Ngodigha,A.O. Amakiri
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2008,
Abstract: Proximate composition was conducted to investigate the nutrient quality of heat treated poultry litter. The litter was subjected to heat treatment by deep stacking at temperature range of 40.10-55oC (104.20-31oF) for 21 days. This was done to ensure pathogenic microbial safety when used as animal feed supplement. Results obtained on the chemical composition showed that poultry litter (layers) contained 621.41 ME kcal/kg, 87% DM, 20% CP, 10.40% CF, 2.20 EE and 18.50% Ash. The results on mineral composition indicates that poultry litter has 4.5% Phosphorus (P), 2.00% Calcium (Ca), 0.10% Sodium (Na), 2.05% Potassium (K) and 0.48% Magnesium (Mg). This study on proximate composition of poultry litter shows that it could be incorporated into animal feeds.
Importancia e medidas de controle para Alphitobius diaperinus em aviários
Japp, Anne Karoline;Bicho, Carla de Lima;Silva, Ana Vitória Fischer da;
Ciência Rural , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-84782010005000114
Abstract: the growth in poultry production because of the high market's demand causes an increase in the confinement raising, which increases the density of birds in poultry houses. as a result of this function, there is moisture increase in broiler litter, both from the excreta and drinkers, which favors the growth of the coleopterons alphitobius diaperinus, popularly known as darkling beetle. the direct contact of the insects with the broiler litter as well as their feeding from dead and sick broilers make the a. diaperinus a vehicle for various pathogens, especially bacteria, protozoa and viruses. besides the relationship with the pathogens, the darkling beetle can cause damage to poultry house, because at the larva stage they tent to burrow in to the insulating material and destroying the protection of polyurethane used for thermal insulation of poultry houses in countries with cold climate, which have to be changed every two or three years. another harming factor to the broilers is the replacement of theirs balanced diet for larvae and adults of coleopterons, which affect the weight gain, mainly within younger individuals. due to this factor, the presence of darkling beetle in poultry installations becomes a health as well as financial problem. the control of a. diaperinus is regarded as difficult and the use of chemical insecticides is common in poultry raising, even though it has disadvantages because it leaves residue in the carcass and in the environment. the presence of high amount of organic matter in poultry causes the decrease of the effectiveness of chemical insecticides. several studies have been developed in research for alternatives, such as nematodes, fungi entomopathogenics, but they are not yet available commercially. another line of research is the use of diatomaceous earth, an inert and non toxic powder which leaves no residues in chicken meat or in the environment.
Evaluation of poultry litter traditional composting process
Sanchuki, Carlos Eduardo;Soccol, Carlos Ricardo;Carvalho, Júlio Cesar de;Soccol, Vanete Thomaz;Nascimento, Camila do;Woiciechowski, Adenise Lorenci;
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-89132011000500024
Abstract: the objective of this work was to study the poultry litter composting and evaluate the physico-chemical and microbiological transformations as a time-function. at the end of composting, an increase of humification matter, a decrease of microbial diversity and the elimination of pathogens were observed. results showed that poultry litter was liable of composting, without any nutritional complementation or inoculation and the process occurred similarly to other kind of organic residues.
Impacts of Poultry House Environment on Poultry Litter Bacterial Community Composition  [PDF]
Michael D. Dumas, Shawn W. Polson, Don Ritter, Jacques Ravel, Jack Gelb, Robin Morgan, K. Eric Wommack
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024785
Abstract: Viral and bacterial pathogens are a significant economic concern to the US broiler industry and the ecological epicenter for poultry pathogens is the mixture of bedding material, chicken excrement and feathers that comprises the litter of a poultry house. This study used high-throughput sequencing to assess the richness and diversity of poultry litter bacterial communities, and to look for connections between these communities and the environmental characteristics of a poultry house including its history of gangrenous dermatitis (GD). Cluster analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed differences in the distribution of bacterial phylotypes between Wet and Dry litter samples and between houses. Wet litter contained greater diversity with 90% of total bacterial abundance occurring within the top 214 OTU clusters. In contrast, only 50 clusters accounted for 90% of Dry litter bacterial abundance. The sixth largest OTU cluster across all samples classified as an Arcobacter sp., an emerging human pathogen, occurring in only the Wet litter samples of a house with a modern evaporative cooling system. Ironically, the primary pathogenic clostridial and staphylococcal species associated with GD were not found in any house; however, there were thirteen 16S rRNA gene phylotypes of mostly Gram-positive phyla that were unique to GD-affected houses and primarily occurred in Wet litter samples. Overall, the poultry house environment appeared to substantially impact the composition of litter bacterial communities and may play a key role in the emergence of food-borne pathogens.
Heat Treatment of Turkey Litter for Reuse as Bedding  [PDF]
J. L. Grimes,C. M. Williams,J. L. Godwin,J. C. Smith
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2003,
Abstract: Local and national laws regulating poultry litter (PL) land application may require that PL be applied based on crop needs and PL nutrient content such as N and P. In addition, some may require monitoring of soil metals such as Cu and Zn. Even with efforts to decrease fecal nutrient excretion, there is also a need to extend the useful life of current bedding materials and to develop alternative uses of spent PL. Heat treatment of PL may extend bedding life and offer alternative uses of PL. The objective of this study was to determine if heat processed turkey litter (TL) can be reused as bedding for turkeys. Pine shavings (PS) which had been used as bedding to rear Large White male turkeys from hatch to 20 weeks of age was processed at 95 and 220 °C in an enclosed auger system. Four litter treatments (LT) were used: 1) control - new PS (T1), 2) TL processed at 95 °C (T2), 3) a 70:30 (w/w) mixture of TL processed at 95 or 220 °C (T3) and 4) a 95:5 (w/w) mixture of TL processed at 95 or 220 °C (T4). These bedding mixtures were placed in 36 floor pens in a randomized block design to provide 9 replicate pens per LT. Thirty Large White turkey hen poults were placed in each pen on day of hatch. The birds were reared to 14 wk. Mortality and feed consumption were monitored. Period and cumulative feed conversion (FC) ratios were calculated. Regression analysis of SAS, Inc. was used for data analysis. The LS Means procedure was used to separate treatment means (P≤0.05). At 6 wks, T3 hens were heavier than T1 (1.78 kg), T2 (1.80 kg) or T4 (1.81 kg) hens. There were no differences in BW at 10 (5.42 kg) or 14 wk (8.67 kg) among treatments. There were no differences in FC. The LT did not affect bird mortality. Litter treated by the heat process used for this study produces a bedding material suitable for rearing market turkeys.
Study on the Use of Dried Poultry Litter in the Camel's Ration  [PDF]
Abdel-Baset Nasr Sayed,Abbas Seif Fathy
Veterinary Research Forum , 2010,
Abstract: A feeding trial of 120 days duration was conducted to study the effect of replacing 20 and 25 % of camel ration by poultry litter (PL) on the performance and some blood biochemical parameters. Fifteen healthy one–humped camels were allotted into three groups (5 animals / group). The first group was fed a basal ration and considered as control, while the second and third groups were fed rations in which poultry litter replaced 20 and 25 % of the basal ration. There was no significant differences in the dry matter intake and digestion coefficients of dry matter and ether extract between the different groups and camels fed on ration containing poultry litter had significantly (P < 0.05) decreased daily gain and feed conversion compared to the control. The apparent digestibility of crude protein by camels increased with 20 % poultry litter in the ration compared with other treatments. Digestibility of crude fibre was higher in rations containing poultry litter compared to control one. No significant differences were observed in blood biochemical parameters except urea and uric acid concentrations were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the serum of animals fed on poultry litter.In general, it could be concluded that, dried poultry litter can be utilized efficiently and safely in rations of camels up to a level of 25 % without adversely effect on performance.
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