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Procura de água e de sombra por caprinos F1 Boer x SRD terminados em pastejo e submetidos a suplementa o Look for water and shade by Boer goats crossbreeds finished in pasture under different feeding supplementation  [cached]
Anderson Luiz Nascimento da Silva,José Morais Pereira Filho,Bonifácio Benicio de Souza,Nadjanara Souza de Oliveira
Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produ??o Animal , 2011,
Abstract: O experimento foi conduzido na Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), Patos, Paraíba, Brasil com o objetivo de avaliar a procura de água e sombra por caprinos F1 Boer x SRD terminados em pastagem nativa e submetidos à suplementa o. Utilizou-se 28 caprinos n o castrados, com 120 dias de idade e peso vivo inicial de 15,52kg, distribuídos em quatro níveis de suplementa o (0,0; 0,5; 1,0 e 1,5% do peso vivo em MS), com sete repeti es. Os avaliadores passaram por treinamento para aprimorar a metodologia e para adapta o dos animais às suas presen as. Os dados foram obtidos através da observa o da frequência de procura de água e sombra pelos animais durante o pastejo diário em três épocas: junho, julho e agosto. N o houve diferen a entre tratamentos para procura por água e a frequência observada foi de 71,43; 80,95; 88,89 e 77,78% para os tratamentos 0,0; 0,5; 1,0 e 1,5% de suplementa o, respectivamente. N o houve efeito dos tratamentos na procura por sombra e a frequência observada foi de 71,43; 85,71; 94,44 e 94,44% nos tratamentos 0,0; 0,5; 1,0 e 1,5% de suplementa o respectivamente. A suplementa o n o altera a frequência de procura de água por caprinos F1 Boer x SRD terminados em pastagem nativa. Os níveis de suplementa o e as épocas n o influenciaram a procura de sombra. The experiment was carried out at the Federal University of Campina Grande (UFCG), Patos, Paraiba, Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the search for water and shade by Boer goats crossbreeds finished in native pasture under different supplementation levels. Twenty-eight Boer goats crossbreeds, non castrated, with 120 days old and an initial live body weight of 15.52Kg, were used. The treatments were randomly assigned to the animals according to a completely randomized design, with 4 feeding supplementations levels (0.0; 0.5; 1.0 and 1.5% of live body weight on Dry matter) and seven replications (goats). Data were obtained through the observation of the search frequency for water and shade by the animals during the daily grazing in three times: June, July and August. There wasn’t difference among treatments for search for water and the frequency observed was of 71.43, 80.95, 88.89 and 77.78% for the treatments 0.0; 0.5; 1.0 and 1.5% of feeding supplementation, respectively. There wasn’t effect of the treatments in the search for shade and the frequency observed was of 71.43, 85.71, 94.44 and 94.44% in the treatments 0.0; 0.5; 1.0 and 1.5% of feeding supplementation, respectively. The feeding supplementation level doesn't alter the search frequency of water
Prediction of carcass tissue composition of F1 crossbred goats finished on native pasture
Silva, Rayana de Medeiros;Pereira Filho, José Morais;Silva, Aderbal Marcos de Azevêdo;Cezar, Marcílio Fontes;Silva, Anderson Luiz Nascimento da;Medeiros, Ariosvaldo Nunes de;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982011000100026
Abstract: the objective of this study was to estimate tissue composition of the carcass from physical composition of commercial cuts of f1 crossbred goats (boer with females of non-defined racial standard) finished on native pasture with four levels of supplementation with concentrate (0.0; 0.5; 1.0 and 1.5% of bw in dry matter). it was used 24 non-castrated animals at initial body weight of 15.52 kg and at 120 days of age. the carcass was sectioned in the half, and from the lefthalf carcass, the following cuts were detached: leg, loin, ribs, shoulder and neck, which were dissected in muscle, bone and fat. carcass weight and yield were predicted from the weight and yield of tissues in the commercial cuts by regression analysis. all the cuts can be used to predict muscle and fat weight in the carcass. for the muscle, the relationship was linear and positive in the cuts leg, ribs, shoulder and neck, and cubic in the loin; for all the cuts, fat kept a linear relationship with the carcass. muscle and fat yield of all the commercial cuts showed a positive linear relationship with carcass yield, except for rib fat, for which a cubic relationship was found. considering all the results obtained and using the relationship with the highest determination coefficient, the ribs were the cut that provided the best estimate of the carcass muscle and fat yields of f1 crossbred goats (boer with females of non-defined racial standard) finished on native pasture.
Effect of supplementation on the performance of F1 crossbred goats finished in native pasture
Carvalho Júnior, Aloísio Monteiro de;Pereira Filho, José Morais;Silva, Rayana de Medeiros;Silva, Aderbal Marcos de Azevêdo;Cezar, Marcílio Fontes;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982011001100032
Abstract: the present study aimed to assess the effect of supplementation on the performance of f1 (boer × females of no defined breed) goats finished in native pasture. the experiment was conducted at the universidade federal de campina grande, patos campus, paraíba, brazil, with twenty-four 120-day-old non-castrated f1 (boer × ndb) male goats, with a 15.52 kg live weight (lw). animals were distributed in four levels of supplementation (0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5% of body) and six replicates. in order to perform the evaluation of dry matter availability, the herbaceous vegetation was divided into grass and herbaceous dicotyledon and evaluated at the beginning (5/28/2007), in the middle (7/9/2007) and at the end (8/6/2007) of the experiment. in the beginning of the experiment, the availability of grass dry matter was 1,102.89 kg/ha, and at the end of the experiment, the availability of the referred matter was greater (1,494.81); on the other hand, the opposite occurred for the dicotyledons, with a dry matter content of 1,759.46 kg/ha in the beginning of the experiment, and only 236.76 kg/ha at the end of the experiment. supplementation made it possible to estimate the increase in dry matter intake of 257.15 g/day and of 20.79 g/kg0.75/day, as well as the daily weight gain of 103 g for each percentage point increase that resulted from supplementation. the availability and nutritional quality of forage had a strong influence on the effect of supplementation on dry matter intake, with a negative response for supplementation levels of up to 0.74% of the live weight consequently, the finishing of f1 crossbred goats in a grazing area in the caatinga can be improved with the supplementation of concentrate at levels 1.0 to 1.5% of the live weight.
Efeito da suplementa??o nas características de carca?a e dos componentes n?o-carca?a de caprinos F1 Boer × SRD terminados em pastagem nativa
Carvalho Júnior, Aloísio Monteiro de;Pereira Filho, José Morais;Silva, Rayana de Medeiros;Cezar, Marcílio Fontes;Silva, Aderbal Marcos de Azevêdo;Silva, Anderson Luiz Nascimento da;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982009000700020
Abstract: the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementation on the carcass characteristics of crossbred boer goats finished on native pasture. twenty-four boer crossbreed goats were used, 120 days old and with an initial 15.52 kg bw. the supplemental feeding was randomly assigned to the animals according to a completely randomized design with 4 supplementation levels (0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%) and six replications (goats). the animals had access to the pasture from 7:30 a.m. until 4 p.m. throughout the experimental period and were taken to stalls to receive supplemental feeding in individual cages equipped with hods and a water. full and empty digestive tract (dt) were weighed, as well as the bladder and gall bladder to obtain the empty body weight (ebw). the visceras yield tended to be different from that observed for absolute weight, except for hoof yield that presented a decreasing linear behavior. the hot and cold carcass weights and the yields and the empty body weight and the biological yield presented positively response to the supplementation levels. regarding the participation of wholesale cuts in the carcass, only the neck yield presented linear effect in response to the increase in supplementation levels. full digestive tract and digestive content weights did not respond to the supplementation levels. the digestive content weight was decisive for the effect of supplemental feeding in the full digestive tract weight. wholesale cuts weight responded positively to the supplementation levels.
Book Review: Karin de Boer, On Hegel: The Sway of the Negative  [PDF]
Katrin Pahl
Cosmos and History : the Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy , 2011,
Abstract: Review of Karin de Boer: On Hegel: The Sway of the Negative
Chemical composition and fatty acids profile of five carcass cuts of crossbred heifers finished in feedlot / Composi o química e perfil de ácidos graxos de cinco diferentes cortes de novilhas mesti as (Nelore vs Charolês)  [cached]
Lívia Maria Araújo Macedo,Ivor Martin do Prado,Juliana Martin do Prado,Polyana Pizzi Rotta
Semina : Ciências Agrárias , 2008,
Abstract: This work was carried-out to study the chemical composition and fatty acids profile among chuck, rump, striploin, topside and knuckle from crossbred ( Nellore x Charolais) heifers finished in feedlot. The knuckle, striploin and topside showed higher (P < 0.05) moisture (75.19, 73.87 e 74.36%) and ash contents (1.09; 1.08 and 1.13%) than the chuck (71.18 e 0.93%) and rump (71.58 e 1.07%), respectively. On the other hand, lipid contents of chuck (7.40%) and rump (5.19%) were higher (P < 0.05) than striploin (2.42%), topside (1.76%) and knuckle (1.69%). The chuck cholesterol content (57.63mg/100 g of muscle) was higher (P < 0.05) than striploin (49.71mg/100 g of muscle) and topside (46.55mg/100 g of muscle). The knuckle percentages of C 18:3 n-3 (0.98%), C20:4n-6 (1.88%), C 20:5 n-3 (0.74%), AGPI (9.34%), n-6 (7.61%) and n-3 (1.73%) were higher (P<0.05) than the values observed on knuckle (0.38; 1.13; 0.39, 4.22; 3.45 and 0.77%) and striploin (0.53; 0.93; 0.26; 5.16; 4.37 and 0.79%). The cuts that would present lower risk to human health, in relation to fatty acids, would be the striploin, topside and knuckle. O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar a composi o química e perfil de ácidos graxos entre acém, alcatra, contrafilé, cox o mole e patinho de novilhas cruzadas ( Nelore vs Charolês) terminadas em confinamento. O patinho, cox o mole e contrafilé apresentaram maior percentagem (p < 0,05) de umidade (75, 19; 73,87 e 74,36%) e cinzas (1, 09; 1,08 e 1,13%) em rela o ao acém (71,18 e 0,93%) e alcatra (71,58 e 1,07%), respectivamente. Por outro lado, as percentagens de lipídios totais do acém (7,40%) e alcatra (5,19%) foram superiores (p < 0,05) aos observados no contrafilé (2,42%), cox o mole (1,76%) e patinho (1,69%). O colesterol total do acém (57,63 mg/100 g de músculo) foi superior (p < 0,05) ao observado no contrafilé (49,71 mg/100 g de músculo) e cox o mole (46,55 mg/100 g de músculo). As percentagens de C 18:3 n-3, C 20:4 n-6, C 20:5 n-3, AGPI, n- e n-3 do patinho (0,98, 1,88, 0,74, 9,34, 7,61 e 1,73%) foram superiores (p < 0,05) às observadas no acém (0,38, 1,13; 0,39; 4,22; 3,45 e 0,77%) e contrafilé (0,53; 0,93; 0,26; 5,16; 4,37 e 0,79%), respectivamente. Desta forma, os cortes que apresentaram menores riscos à saúde humana com rela o ao perfil de ácidos graxos, foram o contrafilé, o cox o mole e o patinho.
Boer War Tribute Medals  [cached]
W.M. Bisset
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5787/13-2-589
Abstract: When the soldiers of Great Britain and the Empire came home after serving in the Anglo-Boer War of 1899-1902 some of the places to which they returned, their regiments and other bodies chose to reward them with unofficial medals which were usually presented at a formal function held in their honour. This book is about the history of these medals and includes the unofficial medals presented to the defenders of Kimberley and O'kiep.
Mycophenolate mofetil versus Rapamycin in Han: SPRD rats with Polycystic Kidney Disease
ZHANG,TONG; WANG,LI; XIONG,XISHAN; MAO,ZHIGUO; WANG,LIMING; MEI,CHANGLIN;
Biological Research , 2009, DOI: 10.4067/S0716-97602009000400005
Abstract: objective: we aimed to explore the effect of mycophenolate mofetil (mmf) on loss of renal function and cyst progression compared to rapamycin in han: sprd rats. we also sought to assess whether the effect of combination therapy of mmf plus rapamycin was better than that of monotherapy. methods: sixty heterozygous (cy/+) and littermate control (+/+) male han: sprd rats were weaned at 4 weeks of age, then divided into four groups randomly to receive different treatments by intragastric administration for 2 months: vehicle-treated group as control, mmf-treated group (20mg/kg/day), rapamycin-treated group (2mg/kg/day), and mmf+rapa- treated group (mmf 20mg/kg/day plus rapamycin 2mg/kg/day). resulls: after 2 months of treatment, rapamycin caused a 22 % decrease in body weight in comparison to the control group, whereas mmf had no significant effect on weight gain. the steady increase of bun in cy/+ rats was reduced by 15% in mmf-treated cy/+ rats. however, rapamycin and combination therapy reduced bun by 42% and 43%, respectively. ccr was 0.93±0.11ml/min in vehicle-treated cy/+ rats, 1.67±0.23 ml/min in mmf-treated cy/+ rats (p<0.05), 1.72±0.44 ml/min and 1.83±0.21 ml/min in rapamycin- and mmf+rapa-treated cy/+ rats, respectively (.p<0.01). cyst volume density was 57.1 % in vehicle-treated cy/+ rats, 45.2% in mmf-treated cy/+ rats (p<0.05), 32.9% and 37.7% in rapamycin- and mmf+rapa-treated cy/+ rats, respectively (p<0.01). mmf markedly ameliorated interstitial inflammation and fibrosis. rapamycin showed a similar effect on interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, but to a lesser degree. conclusion : mmf is more tolerable than rapamycin and can retard deterioration of renal function in han: sprd rats, though its effect is weaker than that of rapamycin. combination therapy does not exert more favorable effect than monotherapy.
Mycophenolate mofetil versus Rapamycin in Han: SPRD rats with Polycystic Kidney Disease  [cached]
TONG ZHANG,LI WANG,XISHAN XIONG,ZHIGUO MAO
Biological Research , 2009,
Abstract: Objective: We aimed to explore the effect of Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) on loss of renal function and cyst progression compared to rapamycin in Han: SPRD rats. We also sought to assess whether the effect of combination therapy of MMF plus rapamycin was better than that of monotherapy. Methods: Sixty heterozygous (Cy/+) and littermate control (+/+) male Han: SPRD rats were weaned at 4 weeks of age, then divided into four groups randomly to receive different treatments by intragastric administration for 2 months: vehicle-treated group as control, MMF-treated group (20mg/kg/day), rapamycin-treated group (2mg/kg/day), and MMF+Rapa- treated group (MMF 20mg/kg/day plus Rapamycin 2mg/kg/day). Resulls: After 2 months of treatment, rapamycin caused a 22 % decrease in body weight in comparison to the control group, whereas MMF had no significant effect on weight gain. The steady increase of BUN in Cy/+ rats was reduced by 15% in MMF-treated Cy/+ rats. However, rapamycin and combination therapy reduced BUN by 42% and 43%, respectively. CCr was 0.93±0.11ml/min in vehicle-treated Cy/+ rats, 1.67±0.23 ml/min in MMF-treated Cy/+ rats (P<0.05), 1.72±0.44 ml/min and 1.83±0.21 ml/min in rapamycin- and MMF+Rapa-treated Cy/+ rats, respectively (.P<0.01). Cyst volume density was 57.1 % in vehicle-treated Cy/+ rats, 45.2% in MMF-treated Cy/+ rats (P<0.05), 32.9% and 37.7% in rapamycin- and MMF+Rapa-treated Cy/+ rats, respectively (P<0.01). MMF markedly ameliorated interstitial inflammation and fibrosis. Rapamycin showed a similar effect on interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, but to a lesser degree. Conclusion : MMF is more tolerable than rapamycin and can retard deterioration of renal function in Han: SPRD rats, though its effect is weaker than that of rapamycin. Combination therapy does not exert more favorable effect than monotherapy.
LESSONS FROM THE BOER WAR  [cached]
C. De Jong
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5787/19-4-375
Abstract: Review of: Jay Stone and Erwin A. Schmidl, The Boer War and Military reforms, Volume 28 of the series "War and Society of East Central Europe", University Press of America, Lanham: New York - London, 1988, 345 pp. Numerous studies exist of the lessons to be learnt from the Anglo-Boer War 1899-1902 by students of 20th Century Warfare. These studies date back from the days of that war up to the present. In many cases these studies are titled "Lessons from the Boer War". In the book under review Jay Stone examines the War's impact on Britain and Erwin Schmidl its effect in Austria-Hungary. I shall confine this review to Stone's findings. According to him Britain entered the war full of self-confidence in the hope of terminating the conflict within a few weeks, but was totally unprepared. The reason was that the last war she waged against a European power was as long ago as 1855-56. That was the Crimean War against Russia. Thereafter she had fought only local, colonial wars against badly drilled, little disciplined and primitively armed non-European armies. Some of these used to attack in large hordes and were shot or ridden down en masse. This had happened recently at Omdurman in 1898 where Kitchener defeated the Sudanese. The British ultimately were victorious in all the colonial wars.
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