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What do Medical Students Need to Learn in Their English Classes?  [cached]
Giti Karimkhanlouei
Journal of Language Teaching and Research , 2012, DOI: 10.4304/jltr.3.3.571-577
Abstract: Our long term goal as teachers is to match the content of the courses to the students' needs. The students of medicine are not so positive about the content of their course. Due to the different levels of the students' backgrounds in English classes or ESP classes and regarding the obstacles the instructors are encountered with in what to teach so as to meet the expectations of ESP students a needs analysis can be so helpful, so as to channel the instruction toward the learners' enthusiasm and interest and to make the output worthy A needs analysis assessment is a very beneficial step to reach this goal. The overall aim of the NA is the identification of elements which will lend themselves to training (Gillet 1973).This research is an endeavor to find out about the needs of the students of medicine in mastering different skills of language in the process of academic context.To do this research students were asked to ill out a questionnaire of needs analysis . The findings revealed that most of the students attached priority to mastering basic skills. The results of this research can be helpful in making decisions on what to teach to such students. By means of carrying out such a research instructors can be aware of the particular needs and perceptions of their subjects in the classroom which otherwise may remain hidden from the sight of those involved in curriculum planning on one hand and assumed instructors on the other hand.
The reporting of statistics in medical educational studies: an observational study
Norman A Desbiens
BMC Medical Research Methodology , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2288-7-35
Abstract: For this observational study, we used electronic searching to identify all survey studies published in Academic Medicine and the Journal of General Internal Medicine in which an entire population was studied. We tallied whether inferential statistics were used and whether p-values were reported.Eighty-four articles were found: 62 in Academic Medicine and 22 in the Journal of General Internal Medicine. Overall, 38 (45%) of the articles reported or stated that they calculated statistics: 35% in Academic Medicine and 73% in the Journal of General Internal Medicine.Educational enumeration surveys frequently report statistical tests. Until a better case can be made for doing so, a simple rule can be proffered to researchers. When studying an entire population (e.g., all program directors, all deans, and all medical schools) for factual information, do not perform statistical tests. Reporting percentages is sufficient and proper.The inclusion of statistical tests has been inculcated into investigators as a necessary step in the reporting of medical research. While descriptive statistics may always be used (unless the data are too sparse), the employment of inferential statistics – statistics calculated from a study sample in order to make generalizations about a larger study target population – is not always appropriate.One situation in which statistical testing must be used with caution is when tests are calculated from what may be a non-random sample [1]. In the medical education literature, this situation may occur when researchers use subjects from their own institutions. The calculation of inferential statistics in these studies is only justifiable if researchers can be assured that the findings from their institution are similar to the reference population. From a strict theoretical viewpoint, they should not be calculated in these studies unless the assumption is made that the institutional sample is similar to a random sample – an inference that cannot be proven f
"What Do They Want Me To Say?" The hidden curriculum at work in the medical school selection process: a qualitative study
Jonathan White, Keith Brownell, Jean-Francois Lemay, Jocelyn M Lockyer
BMC Medical Education , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6920-12-17
Abstract: The authors conducted a qualitative analysis of 210 essays written as part of the medical school admissions process, and developed a conceptual framework to describe the relationships, ideas and concepts observed in the data.Findings of this analysis were confirmed in interviews with applicants and assessors. Analysis revealed a tension between "genuine" and "expected" responses that we believe applicants experience when choosing how to answer questions in the admissions process. A theory named "What do they want me to say?" was developed to describe the ways in which applicants modulate their responses to conform to their expectations of the selection process; the elements of this theory were confirmed in interviews with applicants and assessors.This work suggests the existence of a "hidden curriculum of admissions" and demonstrates that the process of selection has a strong influence on applicant response. This paper suggests ways that selection might be modified to address this effect. Studies such as this can help us to appreciate the unintended consequences of admissions processes and can identify ways to make the selection process more consistent, transparent and fair.Admission to medical school is a serious matter for all parties involved. The task of selecting applicants who wish to become doctors is "a complex problem encumbered by inherent uncertainty" [1], and "daunting... selecting a small number of applicants who are most likely to succeed in medical school from a large pool of seemingly suitable applicants"[2]. Traditionally, selection has been based largely on academic performance, but recent work has focused on making the process more effective and representative of the needs of society [3,4] and has encouraged admissions committees to consider non cognitive attributes as well as academic performance [5].Many medical schools utilize essay questions in student selection, and the essay question has long been included as a component of the Medical Colle
What do medical students think about their quality of life? A qualitative study
Tempski Patricia,Bellodi Patricia L,Paro Helena BMS,Enns Sylvia C
BMC Medical Education , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6920-12-106
Abstract: Background Medical education can affect medical students’ physical and mental health as well as their quality of life. The aim of this study was to assess medical students’ perceptions of their quality of life and its relationship with medical education. Methods First- to sixth-year students from six Brazilian medical schools were interviewed using focus groups to explore what medical student’s lives are like, factors related to increases and decreases of their quality of life during medical school, and how they deal with the difficulties in their training. Results Students reported a variety of difficulties and crises during medical school. Factors that were reported to decrease their quality of life included competition, unprepared teachers, excessive activities, and medical school schedules that demanded exclusive dedication. Contact with pain, death and suffering and harsh social realities influence their quality of life, as well as frustrations with the program and insecurity regarding their professional future. The scarcity of time for studying, leisure activities, relationships, and rest was considered the main factor of influence. Among factors that increase quality of life are good teachers, classes with good didactic approaches, active learning methodologies, contact with patients, and efficient time management. Students also reported that meaningful relationships with family members, friends, or teachers increase their quality of life. Conclusion Quality of teachers, curricula, healthy lifestyles related to eating habits, sleep, and physical activity modify medical students’ quality of life. Lack of time due to medical school obligations was a major impact factor. Students affirm their quality of life is influenced by their medical school experiences, but they also reframe their difficulties, herein represented by their poor quality of life, understood as necessary and inherent to the process of becoming doctors.
What Do Statistics Reveal About the Black Hole versus the Bulge Mass Correlation and Co-evolution?  [PDF]
Chien Y. Peng
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: Observational data show that the correlation between supermassive black holes (MBH) and galaxy bulge (Mbulge) masses follows a nearly linear trend, and that the correlation is strongest with the bulge rather than the total stellar mass (Mgal). With increasing redshift, the ratio Gamma=MBH/Mbulge relative to z=0 also seems to be larger for MBH >~ 10^{8.5} Msol. This study looks more closely at statistics to better understand the creation and observations of the MBH-Mbulge correlation. It is possible to show that if galaxy merging statistics can drive the correlation, minor mergers are responsible for causing a *convergence to linearity* most evident at high masses, whereas major mergers have a central limit convergence that more strongly *reduces the scatter*. This statistical reasoning is agnostic about galaxy morphology. Therefore, combining statistical prediction (more major mergers ==> tighter correlation) with observations (bulges = tightest correlation), would lead one to conclude that more major mergers (throughout an entire merger tree, not just the primary branch) give rise to more prominent bulges. With regard to controversial findings that Gamma increases with redshift, this study shows why the luminosity function (LF) bias argument, taken correctly at face value, strengthens rather than weakens the results. However, correcting for LF bias is unwarranted because the BH mass scale for quasars is bootstrapped to the MBH-Sigma* correlation in normal galaxies at z=0, and quasar-quasar comparisons are internally consistent. In Monte-Carlo simulations, high Gamma objects are "under-merged" galaxies that take longer to converge to linearity via minor mergers. Another evidence that the galaxies are undermassive at z >~ 2 for their MBH is that the quasar hosts are very compact for their expected mass.
What do clinicians want? Interest in integrative health services at a North Carolina academic medical center
Kathi J Kemper, Deborah Dirkse, Dee Eadie, Melissa Pennington
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-7-5
Abstract: We conducted a cross sectional on-line survey of physicians, nurse practitioners and physician assistants at a tertiary care medical center in 2006. The survey contained questions on referrals and recommendations in the past year and interest in therapies or services if they were to be provided at the medical center in the future.Responses were received from 173 clinicians in 26 different departments, programs and centers. There was strong interest in offering several specific therapies: therapeutic exercise (77%), expert consultation about herbs and dietary supplements (69%), and massage (66%); there was even stronger interest in offering comprehensive treatment programs such as multidisciplinary pain management (84%), comprehensive nutritional assessment and advice (84%), obesity/healthy lifestyle promotion (80%), fit for life (exercise and lifestyle program, 76%), diabetes healthy lifestyle promotion (73%); and comprehensive psychological services for stress management, including hypnosis and biofeedback (73%).There is strong interest among medical staff at an academic health center in comprehensive, integrated services for pain, obesity, and diabetes and in specific services in fitness, nutrition and stress management. Future studies will need to assess the cost-effectiveness of such services, as well as their financial sustainability and impact on patient satisfaction, health and quality of life.Use of complementary medicine is substantial and growing in the US [1-3]. As use has grown, terminology has evolved. The term "unconventional therapies", used in the early 1990's, referred to therapies not used in academic health centers, not taught in medical schools and not reimbursed by major insurers. This term evolved to "complementary and alternative" medical therapies (CAM) which was adopted by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in 1998 when it created the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM). NIH NCCAM defines CAM as a group of
What do medical students learn when they follow patients from hospital to community? A longitudinal qualitative study
Rukshini Puvanendran,Farhad Fakhrudin Vasanwala,Robert K. Kamei,Lee Kheng Hock
Medical Education Online , 2012, DOI: 10.3402/meo.v17i0.18899
Abstract: Context: Although longitudinal community-based care of patients provides opportunities for teaching patient centredness and chronic disease management, there is a paucity of literature assessing learning outcomes of these clerkships. This study examines learning outcomes among students participating in longitudinal community based follow-up of patients discharged from the hospital. Methods: The authors conducted a thematic analysis of 253 student narratives written by 44 third-year medical students reflecting on their longitudinal interactions with patients with chronic medical illnesses. The narratives were written over three periods: after acute hospital encounter, after a home visit and at the end of the 10-month follow-up. Analysis involved coding of theme content and counting of aggregate themes. Results: The most frequent theme was ‘chronic disease management’ (25%) followed by ‘patient-centred care’ (22%), ‘health care systems’ (20.9%), ‘biomedical issues’ (19.7%), ‘community services’ (9.5%) and ‘student's role conflict’ (2.3%). There was a shift in the relative frequency of the different themes, as students moved from hospital to community with their patients. Biomedical (44.3%) and health systems (18.2%) were the dominant themes following the acute hospitalization encounter. Chronic disease management (35.1%) and patient centredness (31.8%) were the dominant themes after the 10-month longitudinal follow-up. Conclusion: Longitudinal community-based interaction with patients resulted in learning about chronic disease management, patient centredness and health care systems over time. Students shifted from learning biomedical knowledge during the acute hospitalization, to focus on better understanding of long-term care and patient centredness, at the end of the module.
What is Statistics?; The Answer by Quantum Language  [PDF]
Shiro Ishikawa
Statistics , 2012,
Abstract: Since the problem: "What is statistics?" is most fundamental in sceince, in order to solve this problem, there is every reason to believe that we have to start from the proposal of a worldview. Recently we proposed measurement theory (i.e., quantum language, or the linguistic interpretation of quantum mechanics), which is characterized as the linguistic turn of the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics. This turn from physics to language does not only extend quantum theory to classical theory but also yield the quantum mechanical world view (i.e., the (quantum) linguistic world view, and thus, a form of quantum thinking, in other words, quantum philosophy). Thus, we believe that the quantum lingistic formulation of statistics gives an answer to the question: "What is statistics?". In this paper, this will be done through the studies of inference interval, statistical hypothesis testing, Fisher maximum likelihood method, Bayes method and regression analysis in meaurement theory.
What Medical Writing Means To Me  [cached]
Elizabeth Wager
Mens Sana Monographs , 2007,
Abstract: This is a personal account based on many years experience as a medical writer. It considers aspects of medical writing with particular focus on the intellectual and ethical dilemmas it can raise. What makes medical writing both so interesting and so challenging is the fact that it often takes place at the border between different disciplines. For example, it straddles both science and art. Ethical issues also arise at the boundaries between academia and commerce. Until recently there have been few guidelines to help navigate such potentially dangerous territory. I have been privileged to be involved in developing two such guidelines and I describe how I hope the Good Publication Practice guidelines for pharmaceutical companies and the European Medical Writers Association guidelines may improve the practice of this fascinating profession, Medical Writing.
On the change of information technology in the field of Medical Biometry and Statistics
Ro?ner, Reinhard
GMS Medizinische Informatik, Biometrie und Epidemiologie , 2005,
Abstract: An overview on the applications of information technology (IT) in Medical Biometry and Statistics is given using the developments at the Department of Medical Biometry and Statistics in Freiburg for illustration. A description of the fields of applications and of the technical equipment shall provide the basis for pointing out structural changes in the use of IT and in the discipline itself over the last forty years.
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