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Tiempo de remojo y profundidad de siembra en semillas del patrón níspero Criollo (Manilkara zapota (Van Royen) (Jacq) Gill) Sapotaceae Soaking time and planting depth of seeding Criollo sapodilla rootstock (Manilkara zapota (Van Royen) (Jacq) Gill) Sapotaceae
R Perozo-Castro,M Ramírez-Villalobos,A Ballesteros,G Rivero
Revista de la Facultad de Agronomía , 2003,
Abstract: Con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto del tiempo de remojo (TR) y profundidad de siembra (PS) en la germinación del patrón níspero Criollo se utilizaron 1200 semillas, seleccionadas de frutos maduros. Las semillas se remojaron en agua por 0, 24, 32 y 48 horas y sembradas, con la parte más ancha hacia arriba, a 2, 4 y 6 cm de profundidad. La PS presentó influencias significativas (P<0,01) en el porcentaje de germinación (PG) y en la tasa de germinación, no así para altura de plántula (AP) y longitud de raíz (LR). El tiempo de remojo e interacción con la PS no mostraron influencias para PG, AP y LR. A los 56 días, la profundidad de siembra de 2 cm registró el mayor PG, 35,75%. La germinación se inició a los 28 días con valores entre 0-9%, que luego tendió a incrementarse hasta los 56 días, 20-38%. La AP osciló entre 6,8 y 7,7 cm y la LR entre 7,6 y 9,2 cm. Se recomienda sembrar a 2 cm de profundidad y evaluar posiciones de siembra. With the purpose of evaluating the effect of soaking time (ST) and depth of seeding (SD) on germination of Criollo sapodilla rootstock , 1200 seeds, selected from fresh fruits, were used. Seeds were soaked in water for 0, 24, 32 and 48 hours and planted with the wider side up at 2, 4 and 6 cm depths. The SD showed significant differences (P<0.01) on the germination percentage (GP) and germination rate, but did not affect seedling height (SH) and root length (RL). The ST and interaction with SD did not show differences for GP, SH and RL. At 56 days, the seeding depth of 2 cm registered the largest GP, 37.75%. Germination began at 28 days with values between 0 and 9%, and then the trend increased until 56 days, 20-38%. SH varied between 6.8 and 7.7 cm and RL between 7.6 and 9.2 cm. Planting at a depth of 2 cm is recommended, and also the seed position should be evaluated.
Pesticidal Evaluation of Manilkara zapota (L.) against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst)  [PDF]
Muhammad Abu Osman,Muhammad Abdul Aziz,Muhammad Rowshanul Habib,Muhammad Rezaul Karim
Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus (ACS) , 2011,
Abstract: This paper presents the residual eff ects of Manilkara zapota (L.) P. Royen plant against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). Four doses, i.e., 1238.5, 619.25, 309.6 and 154.8 μg/cm2 of ethyl acetate extract of stem bark of Manilkara zapota were applied on larvae and adult beetles. The effectiveness of the plant extract was increased with the increase of exposure time and after 72 hrs of exposure, the maximum residual toxicity was observed with LD50 of 228.8, 281.1, 413.4, 423.7, 455.2, 498.7 and 526.5 μg/cm2 for first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth instar larvae and adults, respectively. The results of this study also demonstrated that the earlier instars were more sensitive to the extracts than those of late instars as well as adults.
Genotype-Based Ancestral Background Consistently Predicts Efficacy and Side Effects across Treatments in CATIE and STAR*D  [PDF]
Daniel E. Adkins, Renan P. Souza, Karolina ?berg, Shaunna L. Clark, Joseph L. McClay, Patrick F. Sullivan, Edwin J. C. G. van den Oord
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0055239
Abstract: Only a subset of patients will typically respond to any given prescribed drug. The time it takes clinicians to declare a treatment ineffective leaves the patient in an impaired state and at unnecessary risk for adverse drug effects. Thus, diagnostic tests robustly predicting the most effective and safe medication for each patient prior to starting pharmacotherapy would have tremendous clinical value. In this article, we evaluated the use of genetic markers to estimate ancestry as a predictive component of such diagnostic tests. We first estimated each patient’s unique mosaic of ancestral backgrounds using genome-wide SNP data collected in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) (n = 765) and the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) (n = 1892). Next, we performed multiple regression analyses to estimate the predictive power of these ancestral dimensions. For 136/89 treatment-outcome combinations tested in CATIE/STAR*D, results indicated 1.67/1.84 times higher median test statistics than expected under the null hypothesis assuming no predictive power (p<0.01, both samples). Thus, ancestry showed robust and pervasive correlations with drug efficacy and side effects in both CATIE and STAR*D. Comparison of the marginal predictive power of MDS ancestral dimensions and self-reported race indicated significant improvements to model fit with the inclusion of MDS dimensions, but mixed evidence for self-reported race. Knowledge of each patient’s unique mosaic of ancestral backgrounds provides a potent immediate starting point for developing algorithms identifying the most effective and safe medication for a wide variety of drug-treatment response combinations. As relatively few new psychiatric drugs are currently under development, such personalized medicine offers a promising approach toward optimizing pharmacotherapy for psychiatric conditions.
Extended van Royen-Weisskopf formalism for lepton-antilepton meson decay widths within non-relativistic quark models  [PDF]
L. A. Blanco,R. Bonnaz,B. Silvestre-Brac,F. Fernandez,A. Valcarce
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1016/S0375-9474(01)01290-8
Abstract: The classical van Royen-Weisskopf formula for the decay width of a meson into a lepton-antilepton pair is modified in order to include non-zero quark momentum contributions within the meson as well as relativistic effects. Besides, a phenomenological electromagnetic density for quarks is introduced. The meson wave functions are obtained from two different models: a chiral constituent quark model and a quark potential model including instanton effects. The modified van Royen-Weisskopf formula is found to improve systematically the results for the widths, giving an overall good description of all known decays.
Propiedades mecánicas y respuesta fisiológica de frutos de chicozapote bajo compresión axial
López Bautista,Vicente; Villase?or Perea,Carlos Alberto; Pérez López,Artemio;
Revista Ciencias T??cnicas Agropecuarias , 2011,
Abstract: the mechanical damages constitute one of the principal causes of losses post-harvest of fruits and vegetables. sapodilla fruits ( manilkara zapota l. p. royen ) are very perishable susceptible to mechanical damage and attack of pathogenic during the post-harvest. it was examined the physiological behavior and mechanic under axial compression with an instron universal testing machine 3382, with capability of 100 kilo newton and a velocity of crossbeam of 20 mm/ minute. the parallel plates compressed the fruit once only, checking a curve force-deformation for each fruit evaluated, in analysis were used two types of fruit (i and ii), two positions of compression and three displacements of crossbeam. the evolution of the respiratory activity, and production of ethylene were determined during five days, mechanical variables were gotten from test for each fruit. the two types of sapodilla showed physiological sensibility to the application of external loads (mechanical damage). the production of ethylene and the velocity of respiration increased significantly for the load applied at the vertical position, which accelerated the deterioration. with the obtained results, it can be inferred than the mechanical parameters for protection of the fruits in harvest, transportation and storage, they should be based in the behavior of the fruits to compression at the horizontal position, with the second displacement of crossbeam, if compression can be reduced for down the doorsteps before referred, it would be possible to reduce the levels of damage and consequently showing a fresh fruit of quality.
Superfosfato simples e cloreto de potássio na forma??o de porta-enxerto de sapotizeiro [Manilkara zapota (L.) Von Royen]
Mendon?a, Vander;Corrêa, Fernando Luíz de Oliveira;Pio, Rafael;Rufini, José Carlos Moraes;Carrijo, Edney Paulo;Ramos, José Darlan;
Ciência e Agrotecnologia , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-70542007000100021
Abstract: the objective of this research was to verify the effect simple superphosphate and potassium hydrochloride doses on the growth of sapodilla rootstocks. the experimental design was a randomized block, with four replications in a (4 x 4) factorial scheme, being four doses of simple superphosphate (0; 2,5; 5 and 10 kg m-3 of substrate) and four levels of potassium hydrochloride (0; 1; 2 and 4 kg m-3 of substrate) and two plant per plot. the rootstocks were evaluated when they reached the graft point, by the following characteristics: length of the aerial part; root length; leaf number; dry matter of the roots, aerial and total part. the result showed that for formation of sapodilla rootstocks, it is necessary the application of simple superphosphate and potassium hydrochloride the substrate and that, level of simple superphosphate of up to 5 kg m-3 with 4 kg m-3 of potassium hydrochloride, provided, to increase, advantage in dry matter production.
Tiempo de remojo y profundidad de siembra en semillas del patrón níspero Criollo (Manilkara zapota (Van Royen) (Jacq) Gill) Sapotaceae
Perozo-Castro,R; Ramírez-Villalobos,M; Ballesteros,A; Rivero,G;
Revista de la Facultad de Agronomía , 2003,
Abstract: with the purpose of evaluating the effect of soaking time (st) and depth of seeding (sd) on germination of criollo sapodilla rootstock , 1200 seeds, selected from fresh fruits, were used. seeds were soaked in water for 0, 24, 32 and 48 hours and planted with the wider side up at 2, 4 and 6 cm depths. the sd showed significant differences (p<0.01) on the germination percentage (gp) and germination rate, but did not affect seedling height (sh) and root length (rl). the st and interaction with sd did not show differences for gp, sh and rl. at 56 days, the seeding depth of 2 cm registered the largest gp, 37.75%. germination began at 28 days with values between 0 and 9%, and then the trend increased until 56 days, 20-38%. sh varied between 6.8 and 7.7 cm and rl between 7.6 and 9.2 cm. planting at a depth of 2 cm is recommended, and also the seed position should be evaluated.
Manilkara zapota (Linn.) Seeds: A Potential Source of Natural Gum  [PDF]
Sudarshan Singh,Sunil B. Bothara
ISRN Pharmaceutics , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/647174
Abstract: Mucilage isolated from seeds of Manilkara zapota (Linn.) P. Royen syn. is a plant growing naturally in the forests of India. This mucilage is yet to be commercially exploited, and characterized as polymer. Various physicochemical methods like particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis, gel permeation chromatography, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy have been employed to characterize this gum in the present study. Particle size analyses suggest that mucilage has particle size in nanometer. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that the mucilage has irregular particle size. The glass transition temperature of the gum was observed to be 138°C and 136°C by differential scanning calorimetry and differential thermal analysis, respectively. The thermogravimetric analysis suggested that mucilage had good thermal stability. The average molecular weight of mucilage was determined to be 379180, by gel permeation chromatography, while the viscosity of mucilage was observed to be 219.1 cP. The X-ray diffraction spectrometry pattern of the mucilage indicates a completely amorphous structure. Elemental analysis of the gum revealed the contents of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur to be 80.9 (%), 10.1 (%), 1.58 (%), and 512 (mg/kg), respectively. Mucilage had specific content of calcium, magnesium, potassium, lower concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, lead, and nickel. The major functional groups identified from FT-IR spectrum include 3441?cm?1 (–OH), 1660?cm?1 (Alkenyl C–H & C=C Stretch), 1632?cm?1 (–COO–), 1414?cm?1 (–COO–), and 1219?cm?1 (–CH3CO). Analysis of mucilage by paper chromatography and 1D NMR, indicated the presence of rhamnose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, and fructose. 1. Introduction In recent years, plant derived polymers have evoked tremendous interest due to their diverse pharmaceutical applications such as diluents, binders, disintegrants in tablets, thickeners in oral liquids, protective colloids in suspensions, gelling agents in gels, and bases in suppository [1]; they are also used in cosmetics, textiles, paints, and paper-making [2]. The plant based polymers have been studied for their application in different pharmaceutical dosage forms like matrix controlled system, film coating agents, buccal films, microspheres, nanoparticles, and viscous liquid formulations like ophthalmic solutions, suspensions, and implants and their applicability and efficacy has been proven [3–5]. These have also been
The effect of seed storage and post seeding light on germination and morphological aspects of young nispero seedlings (Manilkara zapota (Van Royen) (Jacq) Gill) Efecto del almacenamiento de las semillas y la condición de luz postsiembra sobre la germinación y algunas características morfológicas de plantas de níspero (Manilkara zapota (Van Royen) (Jacq) Gill) a nivel de vivero
N Buitrago-Rueda1,M Ramírez-Villalobos,A Gómez-Degraves,G. Rivero-Maldonado
Revista de la Facultad de Agronomía , 2004,
Abstract: The effect of seed storage and levels of post-seeding light on germination and morphological aspects of seedlings of the "Criollo" Nispero strain were evaluated. A total of 400 seeds were planted in the plant nursery at the University of Zulia, Maracaibo, Venezuela. Treatments consisted of the combination of two light levels (0% and 60%) and two storage periods (0 and 5 months) at a temperature of 10 ± 1oC. The response variable studied were percentage of germination (PG), rate of germination (TG), height of seedlings (AP) and length of root (LR). Germination began at 36 days after seeding, and increased slowly up to 42 days, a time period which remained constant thereafter (61-67%). Storage showed significant influence (P<0.05) in TG and LR, The light condition affected AP and LR, The interaction between storage time and light level did not affect (P>0.05) the variable studied. Better AP was obtained in seed planted with 0% light (9.22 cm) and greater LR (8.22 cm) in those under 60%. The lowest TG was found in seeds stored (36.69 days) Se evaluó el efecto del almacenamiento de las semillas y el nivel de luz pos-siembra sobre la germinación y características morfológicas de plantas del patrón níspero "Criollo". Un total de 400 semillas fueron sembradas en el vivero de La Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo, Venezuela. Los tratamientos se obtuvieron de la combinación de dos niveles de luz (0% y 60%) y con dos tiempos de almacenamiento (0 y 5 meses) a temperatura de 10±1°C. Las variables respuestas estudiadas fueron: Porcentaje de Germinación (PG), Tasa de Germinación (TG), Altura de Planta (AP) y Longitud de la Raíz (LR). La germinación se inició a los 36 días de la siembra, incrementándose paulatinamente hasta los 42 días, tiempo donde permaneció constante (61-67%). El almacenamiento mostró influencia significativa (P<0,05) en la TG y LR, la condición de luz en la AP y LR, la interacción del tiempo de almacenamiento y nivel de luz no afectó (P>0,05) las variables estudiadas. Se obtuvo una mayor AP en semillas sembradas con 0% de luz (9,22 cm) y mayor LR (8,22 cm) en aquellas bajo 60%. La menor TG se registró en semillas con almacenamiento (36,69 días)
Efecto del almacenamiento de las semillas y la condición de luz postsiembra sobre la germinación y algunas características morfológicas de plantas de níspero (Manilkara zapota (Van Royen) (Jacq) Gill) a nivel de vivero
Buitrago-Rueda1,N; Ramírez-Villalobos,M; Gómez-Degraves,A; Rivero-Maldonado,G.; Perozo-Bravo,A;
Revista de la Facultad de Agronomía , 2004,
Abstract: abstract the effect of seed storage and levels of post-seeding light on germination and morphological aspects of seedlings of the "criollo" nispero strain were evaluated. a total of 400 seeds were planted in the plant nursery at the university of zulia, maracaibo, venezuela. treatments consisted of the combination of two light levels (0% and 60%) and two storage periods (0 and 5 months) at a temperature of 10 ± 1oc. the response variable studied were percentage of germination (pg), rate of germination (tg), height of seedlings (ap) and length of root (lr). germination began at 36 days after seeding, and increased slowly up to 42 days, a time period which remained constant thereafter (61-67%). storage showed significant influence (p<0.05) in tg and lr, the light condition affected ap and lr, the interaction between storage time and light level did not affect (p>0.05) the variable studied. better ap was obtained in seed planted with 0% light (9.22 cm) and greater lr (8.22 cm) in those under 60%. the lowest tg was found in seeds stored (36.69 days)
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