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Padr o respiratório e movimento toracoabdominal de crian as respiradoras orais Breathing pattern and thoracoabdominal motion in mouth-breathing children  [cached]
TCS Brant,VF Parreira,MC Mancini,HMG Becker
Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy , 2008,
Abstract: OBJETIVO: Caracterizar o padr o respiratório e o movimento toracoabdominal de crian as respiradoras orais, na faixa etária entre oito e dez anos, e compará-lo ao de seus pares respiradoras nasais. MéTODOS: Estudo observacional realizado em laboratório universitário. O número amostral calculado com base em um estudo piloto com dez crian as em cada grupo, perfazendo um total de 20 crian as, foi de 50 para um nível de significancia de 0,05 e um poder estatístico de 0,80. Participaram do estudo 26 crian as respiradoras orais e 25 respiradoras nasais. A pletismografia respiratória por indutancia calibrada foi o instrumento utilizado para a análise das seguintes variáveis, entre outras: freqüência respiratória (FR), contribui o da caixa torácica para o volume corrente (%CT/Vc), angulo de fase (Angfase) e a raz o entre o tempo para alcan ar o pico de fluxo inspiratório e o tempo inspiratório (PifT/Ti). A satura o periférica da hemoglobia em oxigênio (SpO2) foi medida pela oximetria de pulso. A análise estatística foi realizada por meio do teste t de Student para grupos independentes e do teste U de Mann-Whitney, em fun o da distribui o das variáveis. RESULTADOS: No total, 4.816 ciclos respiratórios foram analisados, sendo 2.455 de respiradores orais e 2.361 de respiradores nasais, com média de 94 ciclos por crian a. N o houve diferen a significativa entre os grupos nas variáveis estudadas (FR=20,00±2,68 versus 20,73±2,58, p=0,169; %CT/Vc=39,30±11,86 versus 38,36±10,93, p=0,769; Angfase=14,53±7,97 versus 13,31±7,74, p=0,583; PifT/Ti=57,40±7,16 versus 58,35±5,99, p=0,610; SpO2=96,42±1,52% versus 96,88±1,01%, p=0,208; respectivamente). CONCLUS ES: Estes resultados sugerem que as crian as respiradoras orais apresentam padr o respiratório e movimento toracoabdominal semelhantes às de respiradores nasais de mesma faixa etária. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the breathing pattern and thoracoabdominal motion of mouth-breathing children aged between eight and ten years and to compare these characteristics with those of nose-breathing children of the same ages. METHODS: This observational study was carried out in a university laboratory. The sample size of 50 subjects was estimated based on the results of a pilot study with ten children in each group (total of 20 children) and considering a significance level of 0.05 and statistical power of 0.80. Twenty-six mouth-breathing and 25 nose-breathing children participated. Calibrated respiratory inductive plethysmography was used to analyze the following variables, among others: respiratory frequency (f), rib cage contributio
Parametros espectrais da voz em crian as respiradoras orais Spectral parameters on voices of mouth-breathing children  [cached]
Danieli Viegas,Flávia Viegas,Ciríaco Cristov?o Tavares Atherino,Heidi Elisabeth Baeck
Revista CEFAC , 2010,
Abstract: OBJETIVO: investigar parametros espectrais (f0 e formantes) descritivos da voz de crian as respiradoras orais, visando contribuir na caracteriza o desta popula o e, consequentemente, na efetividade do diagnóstico. MéTODOS: foram selecionadas 50 crian as respiradoras orais e 101 crian as com respira o nasal de ambos os gêneros entre cinco e dez anos. Os sinais de fala foram obtidos a partir das grava es de senten as-veículo e os segmentos das vogais orais [a], [i] e [u] do português falado no Brasil em posi o t nica foram selecionados para a estima o da frequência fundamental (f0) e da frequência dos três primeiros formantes (F1, F2 e F3). O software Praat foi utilizado para gravar, recortar e processar os sinais. RESULTADOS: a frequência fundamental das vogais [i] e [u] apresentou-se menor nos respiradores orais, enquanto que a frequência de F1 da vogal [u] foi mais elevada no mesmo grupo. CONCLUS O: a partir dos resultados expostos, concluiu-se que a frequência fundamental consiste em um parametro vocal que auxilia na diferencia o de crian as respiradores orais e respiradoras nasais, contribuindo, desta forma para uma caracteriza o mais efetiva do respirador oral. PURPOSE: to investigate spectral parameters on voices of mouth-breathing children so as to contribute to the characterization of this population, thus to an efficient diagnosis. METHODS: fifty mouth-breathing children and one hundred and one nasal breathing children were selected among five and ten year old children of both genders. Recordings were obtained from carrier phrases and segments of the oral vowels [a], [i] and [u] of Brazilian Portuguese in the stressed syllable were selected to estimate the fundamental frequency (f0) and the frequency of the first three formants (F1, F2 e F3). The signals were recorded, cut out and processed using Praat software. RESULTS: the fundamental frequency for the vowels [i] and [u] showed lower frequency in the mouth-breathing group, while the frequency F1 of the vowel [u] was higher in the same group. CONCLUSION: our findings pointed out that the fundamental frequency is a vocal parameter that helps us to differentiate mouth-breathing children from nasal breathers, therefore contributing for a mouth breathing classification system.
A postura corporal e as fun es estomatognáticas em crian as respiradoras orais: uma revis o de literatura Body posture and the stomatognathic functions in mouth breathing children: a literature review  [cached]
Patricia Girarde Machado,Carolina Lisb?a Mezzomo,Ana Fátima Viero Badaró
Revista CEFAC , 2012,
Abstract: A postura corporal das crian as é objeto de crescente estudo na fisioterapia, assim como as crian as respiradoras orais o s o na fonoaudiologia. Este estudo tem por objetivo verificar, na literatura científica, as fun es estomatognáticas, a postura corporal e suas rela es, em crian as respiradoras orais. Trata-se de uma revis o da literatura sobre a postura corporal, e o sistema estomatognático e suas rela es em respiradores orais obstrutivos e funcionais. Buscou-se nas bases de dados eletr nicos MEDLINE, SCIELO e LILACS, e Googlecientífico, artigos que relacionassem esses temas nos últimos 10 anos. Os artigos selecionados foram organizados de acordo com os autores, o título, a origem, a faixa etária e o ano de publica o. Após a sele o dos textos, foram identificados apenas quatro trabalhos que relacionam postura, sistema estomatognático e respira o oral; dois que relacionam sistema estomatognático e postura; e a maioria, treze que estudam sistema estomatognático e respira o oral; dentre outros. Notou-se que há uma escassez de informa es sobre a rela o da postura corporal com o sistema estomatognático em respiradores orais. A escassez é ainda maior quando se compara o grupo de respiradores orais obstrutivos e respiradores orais funcionais relacionando a postura corporal com o sistema estomatognático. Children's body posture has been studied more and more by physical therapy, as well as mouth breather children have been studied by speech-language-hearing therapy. This study tries to check, through scientific literature, the relationship between stomatognathic functions and body posture in mouth breather children. This is a review of literature on body posture and the stomatognathic system in obstructive and functional mouth breathers. We searched, in electronic data basis such as MEDLINE, SCIELO and LILACS, and Google Scientific, articles related to these topics, published in the last 10. The selected articles were organized according to authors, title, source, age, and publishing year. When related to the type, the studies were considered: literature review articles; descriptive data analysis; field research. After selecting the texts, we identified four studies that relate posture, stomatognathic system and mouth breathing; two studies that relate stomatognathic system and posture; 13 studies relating to the stomatognathic system and mouth breathing. We may perceive that there is a lack of studies correlating body posture and stomatognathic system in oral breathers. The lack is even higher when we compare obstructive oral breathers and vicious
Postura, t nus e mobilidade de lábios e língua de crian as respiradoras orais Posture, lips and tongue tone and mobility of mouth breathing children  [cached]
Marta Assump??o de Andrada e Silva,Irene Queiroz Marchesan,Léslie Piccolotto Ferreira,Rafaela Schmidt
Revista CEFAC , 2012,
Abstract: OBJETIVO: caracterizar a postura, o t nus e a mobilidade dos lábios e da língua de crian as respiradoras orais. MéTODO: participaram do estudo realizado em S o Paulo, SP, Brasil, 40 crian as respiradoras orais, sendo 26 (65%) do sexo masculino e 14 (35%) do sexo feminino, com idades entre 7 e 10 anos. Utilizou-se o protocolo MBGR para avalia o dos aspectos analisados. RESULTADOS: foram encontrados os seguintes achados para postura dos lábios: entreabertos (32,5%), alternancia entre abertos e fechados (27,5%), abertos (22,5%) e fechados (17,5%). Em rela o ao t nus do lábio superior: 90% apresentaram t nus normal, 10% diminuído e nenhuma com t nus aumentado. Quanto ao t nus de lábio inferior, 80,0% das crian as apresentaram t nus diminuído e 20,0% normal. No item mobilidade dos lábios, 100,0% apresentaram mobilidade mais próxima dos melhores escores. Em rela o à postura habitual da língua, em 57,5% esta estrutura permaneceu no assoalho, em 32,5% n o foi possível observar sua posi o e em 10,0% se encontrava em posi o interdental. Quanto ao t nus da língua, 52,5% apresentaram t nus diminuído e 47,5% normal. Na avalia o de mobilidade de língua, 100,0% apresentaram mobilidade mais próxima dos melhores escores. CONCLUS O: as características de postura, t nus e mobilidade dos lábios das crian as respiradoras orais estudadas foram: lábios entreabertos, lábio superior com t nus normal, lábio inferior com t nus diminuído e mobilidade normal. Em rela o à língua: postura no assoalho da boca, t nus diminuído e mobilidade normal. PURPOSE: to characterize lips and tongue posture, tone and mobility of mouth breathing children. METHOD: the subjects of this study, conducted in S o Paulo, SP, Brazil, were 40 mouth breathing children, 26 (65%) male and 14 (35%) female, aging between 7 and 10-year old. MBGR protocol was used to evaluate the aforementioned aspects. RESULTS: the following results were obtained for lip posture: semi-open lips (32.5%), alternating between open and closed lips (27.5%), open lip posture (22.5%) and closed lips (17.5%). With regards to the upper lip tone: 90% showed normal muscle tone, 10% lower tone, and no subjects showed a higher muscle tone. As for the tone of the lower lip, 80.0% of the children showed lower muscle tone, and 20.0% normal muscle tone. For the lips mobility variable, 100% had their mobility close to the best scores. Regarding tongue posture, 57.5% had a low-lying resting tongue posture, 32.5% did not allow for observation of this variable, and in 10.0% of the subjects the tongue was placed in an interdental resting postur
Padr?o respiratório e movimento toracoabdominal de crian?as respiradoras orais
Brant, TCS;Parreira, VF;Mancini, MC;Becker, HMG;Reis, AFC;Britto, RR;
Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-35552008005000010
Abstract: objective: to characterize the breathing pattern and thoracoabdominal motion of mouth-breathing children aged between eight and ten years and to compare these characteristics with those of nose-breathing children of the same ages. methods: this observational study was carried out in a university laboratory. the sample size of 50 subjects was estimated based on the results of a pilot study with ten children in each group (total of 20 children) and considering a significance level of 0.05 and statistical power of 0.80. twenty-six mouth-breathing and 25 nose-breathing children participated. calibrated respiratory inductive plethysmography was used to analyze the following variables, among others: respiratory frequency (f), rib cage contribution towards tidal volume (%rc/vt), phase angle (phang) and the ratio between time taken to reach peak inspiratory flow and total inspiratory time (pift/ti). peripheral oxygen saturation of hemoglobin (spo2) was measured using pulse oximetry. statistical analysis was performed using the student's t test for independent groups or the mann-whitney u test, according to the sample distribution of the variables. results: a total of 4,816 respiratory cycles were analyzed: 2,455 from mouth-breathers and 2,361 from nose-breathers, with a mean of 94 cycles per child. no statistically significant differences were observed between the groups, for the variables studied (f=20.00±2.68 versus 20.73±2.58, p=0.169; %rc/vt=39.30±11.86 versus 38.36±10.93, p=0.769; phang=14.53±7.97 versus 13.31±7.74, p=0.583; pift/ti=57.40±7.16 versus 58.35±5.99, p=0.610; spo2=96.42±1.52% versus 96.88± 1.01%, p=0.208; respectively). conclusions: these results suggest that mouth-breathing children show breathing patterns and thoracoabdominal motion that are similar to those of nose-breathing children in the same age group.
Estudo eletromiográfico dos músculos faciais de respiradores nasais, respiradores orais viciosos e obstrutivos Electromyographic study on facial muscles of nasal breathers, obstructive and vicious oral breathers  [cached]
Luane de Moraes Boton,Ana Maria Toniolo da Silva,Geovana de Paula Bolzan,Eliane Castilhos Rodrigues Corrêa
Revista CEFAC , 2011,
Abstract: OBJETIVO: verificar a atividade elétrica dos músculos orbiculares orais, masseteres e temporais no repouso, nas isometrias, labial e mastigatória, em crian as respiradoras nasais e respiradoras orais viciosas e obstrutivas, comparando-as. MéTODOS: foram estudadas 59 crian as, 15 respiradoras nasais (RN); 23 respiradoras orais viciosas (ROV) e 21 respiradoras orais obstrutivas (ROO). Todas foram submetidas à avalia o otorrinolaringológica, à fonoaudiológica e ao exame eletromiográfico durante repouso, isometrias mastigatória e labial. Foi realizada análise de variancia de Kruskal-Wallis para compara o entre os grupos e dos grupos dois a dois e o teste de Wilcoxon para compara o entre os músculos (p<0,05). RESULTADOS: quando se comparou os três grupos, n o houve diferen a significativa nos músculos estudados, exceto no músculo masseter direito durante repouso, quando se comparou os RN e ROV; para os músculos orbicular inferior no repouso e temporal esquerdo na isometria mastigatória, quando se comparou os RN e ROO. Na compara o dos ROV e ROO nenhum músculo mostrou diferen a significativa. O músculo orbicular inferior se mostrou mais ativo que orbicular superior no repouso e na isometria labial, principalmente, nos ROV e ROO. A compara o dos músculos dos lados opostos da face na isometria mastigatória mostrou assimetria. O músculo temporal apresentou-se mais ativo que os masseteres no repouso e na isometria mastigatória. CONCLUS O: o modo respiratório n o modificou o comportamento dos músculos avaliados quando realizadas compara es entre os grupos e as diferentes etiologias da respira o oral n o alteraram a atividade elétrica dos músculos avaliados quando se comparou os ROV e ROO. PURPOSE: to check, through an electromyographic evaluation, the electrical activity pattern of the orbicular oral, masseter and temporal muscles on nasal breathers, obstructive and vicious oral breathers in order to compare them. METHODS: 59 children, 15 nasal breathers (NB); 23 vicious oral breathers (VOB) and 21 obstructive oral breathers (OOB) were studied. All were submitted to an otorhinolaringological and speech-language patology evaluation and to an electromyographic exam in rest, masticatoric and labial isometries. We developed a Kruskal-Wallis variance analysis in order to make a comparison between the groups and the two-by-two groups and the Wilcoxon's test in order to compare between the muscles (p<0,05). RESULTS: after comparing the three groups, there were no relevant difference in the studied muscles, except for the right masseter muscle while resting, when t
Análise quantitativa do palato duro em diferentes tipologias faciais de respiradores nasais e orais Quantitative analysis of the hard palate in different facial typologies in nasal and mouth breathers  [cached]
Luana Cristina Berwig,Ana Maria Toniolo da Silva,Eliane Castilhos Rodrigues C?rrea,Anaelena Bragan?a de Moraes
Revista CEFAC , 2012,
Abstract: OBJETIVO: comparar as dimens es do palato duro em diferentes tipologias faciais de crian as respiradoras nasais e orais. MéTODO: a amostra foi constituída por 54 crian as, na faixa etária entre sete e 11 anos, distribuídas em grupos conforme o tipo facial e o modo respiratório. O tipo facial foi obtido por meio da análise cefalométrica de Ricketts, e o modo respiratório foi determinado a partir da avalia o fonoaudiológica e do diagnóstico otorrinolaringológico. Para realiza o de medidas transversais, verticais e do comprimento anteroposterior do palato duro, foram obtidos modelos em gesso do arco dental maxilar. Para compara o das dimens es do palato duro entre os grupos, foram utilizados testes paramétricos e n o paramétricos, ao nível de significancia de 5%. RESULTADOS: n o foi verificada diferen a estatisticamente significante nas medidas do palato duro entre as crian as braquifaciais, mesofaciais e dolicofaciais. Verificou-se diferen a estatisticamente significante na distancia entre os segundos pré-molares nos diferentes tipos faciais das crian as respiradoras nasais e orais, sendo que esta diferen a n o foi detectada nas compara es múltiplas. CONCLUS O: as dimens es do palato duro n o diferiram quando analisadas em diferentes tipos faciais independente do modo respiratório. Porém, evidenciou-se diferen a na distancia entre os segundos pré-molares quando o tipo facial foi analisado nos respiradores nasais e orais. PURPOSE: to compare the hard palate dimensions in nasal and mouth breathing children of different facial typologies. METHOD: the sample comprised 54 children between seven and 11 year old, divided in two groups according to the facial type and breathing mode. The facial type was obtained through the Ricketts cephalometric analysis, and the breathing mode was determined from speech-language evaluation and otorhynolaryngologic diagnosis. In order to measure the transverse, vertical and anteroposterior length of the hard palate, plaster cast models of the children superior dental arch were obtained. To get the hard palate dimensions among the groups, parametric and nonparametric tests were used under a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: no statistically significant difference was found in hard palate measures among brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial children. A significant statistical difference in the distance among the second premolars was identified when compared with the different facial types of nasal and mouth breathing children, and such a difference was not detected in multiple comparisons. CONCLUSION: the dimensions of t
Rela o entre má oclus o e hábitos em respiradores orais Relationship between malocclusion and oral habits in mouth breathing  [cached]
Flávia Le?es de Almeida,Ana Maria Toniolo da Silva,Eliane de Oliveira Serpa
Revista CEFAC , 2009,
Abstract: OBJETIVO: verificar a rela o entre má oclus o e hábitos orais deletérios em um grupo de respiradores orais. MéTODOS: estudo retrospectivo realizado por meio da análise de dados dos prontuários de 41 crian as, com idades entre sete e 12 anos, sendo 21 do sexo masculino e 20 do sexo feminino, todas respiradoras orais. As informa es coletadas foram organizadas em um Banco de Dados no programa Excel, considerando-se as variáveis: idade, sexo, presen a e tipo de hábito oral, e presen a e tipo de má oclus o. RESULTADOS: todas as crian as apresentavam algum tipo de má oclus o, com predomínio de classe II de Angle, e sobressaliência acentuada; entre os hábitos, o mais incidente foi o de coloca o de objetos na boca, embora todas as crian as tenham apresentado um, ou mais hábitos deletérios; no cruzamento das variáveis, a única rela o estatisticamente significante encontrada foi entre o hábito de lamber lábios e a sobressaliência acentuada. CONCLUS O: conclui-se que, nessa amostra, a presen a de hábitos deletérios n o foi determinante para a instala o das más oclus es, que a respira o oral pode ter desencadeado as más oclus es nesse grupo e que, a associa o dos hábitos deletérios com a respira o oral, pode ter agido como fator agravante para a instala o, ou desenvolvimento das más oclus es nessas crian as. PURPOSE: to check the relationship between malocclusion and deleterious oral habits in a group of mouth breathing. METHODS: this study was accomplished through data analysis of 41 children handbooks, with ages between 7 and 12 years, being 21 of masculine gender and 20 of feminine gender, all mouth breathing. The collected information was organized in a database using an Excel program, considering the variables: age, gender, presence and type of oral habit, and presence and type of malocclusion. RESULTS: all children presented some type of malocclusion, with prevalence of class II of Angle, and accentuated overjet; among the habits, the more incident was placement of objects in the mouth, although all children have showed one, or more deleterious habits; in crossing the variables, the only significant statistical relationship found was between the habit of licking lips and accentuated overjet. CONCLUSIONS: we may conclude that, in this sample, the presence of deleterious habits were not decisive for installation of malocclusions, that the mouth breathing might have unchained the malocclusions in this group and that, the association of the deleterious habits with the mouth breathing, might have acted as aggravating factor for the installation, or develo
Prevalência de crian?as respiradoras orais
Abreu, Rubens Rafael;Rocha, Regina Lunardi;Lamounier, Joel Alves;Guerra, ?ngela Francisca Marques;
Jornal de Pediatria , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0021-75572008000600015
Abstract: objective: to determine the prevalence of mouth breathing among children aged 3 to 9 years living in the urban districts of the town of abaeté, mg, brazil. methods: this study assesses a representative, randomized sample of the town's population (23,596 inhabitants). children were selected by lots according to a random number table until 370 had been enrolled; this number had been determined by statistical calculation. a protocol for anamnesis and clinical assessment of the patients was specially developed for this project since no preexisting instruments could be found in the literature that had been validated and were appropriate for the purpose. data were analyzed using spss version 10.5. results: the prevalence of mouth breathing was found to be 55%, or 204 children. conclusion: further studies are needed to validate a questionnaire for the clinical diagnosis of mouth breathers at the primary care level.
Terapia miofuncional orofacial em crian?as respiradoras orais
Gallo, Júlia;Campiotto, Alcione Ramos;
Revista CEFAC , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-18462009000700005
Abstract: purpose: to describe the evolution of children with oral breathing, submitted to myofuncional therapy with emphasis on strengthening the muscles of the phonoarticulatoty organs and training of nasal breathing. methods: six children, 5 and 11-year old, who had performed screening at the division of phonoaudiological therapy at irmandade santa casa de misericordia de s?o paulo, along the year 2007, who demonstrated oral or oronasal breathing and signals and symptoms that are characteristic to this alteration, and had not been submitted to previous phonoaudiological treatment. the patients underwent 10 sessions of miofuntional therapy, focused on strengthening the muscles of the phonoarticulatory organs and training of nasal breathing. after the sessions, a reassessment was carried out and the evolution of the patients was compared qualitatively. results: four (66.66%) of the individuals were diagnosed with nasal obstruction. three had been submitted to surgery previous to the phonoaudiological treatment. two (33.33%) had a diagnosis of allergic rhinitis and were undergoing a treatment concomitantly to the sessions. all showed satisfactory improvement as for the worked issues. three (50%) of the individuals had dentofacial deformities and made progress, though limited by the dental condition. all individuals showed improvement in the possibility of mouth closure and nasal breathing. conclusion: ten sessions of miofuntional therapy, with emphasis on strengthening the muscles of the phonoarticulatory organs and training of nasal breathing were sufficient to obtain the improvement of the patients. the small number of the samples does not allow us to generalize the conclusion for others. we suggest to make further studies with larger populations and different age groups.
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