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Development of enteric coated tablets from spray dried extract of feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L: )
Chaves, Juliana Siqueira;Da Costa, Fernando Batista;Freitas, Luís Alexandre Pedro de;
Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1984-82502009000300024
Abstract: tanacetum parthenium (feverfew) is an herb that is commercialized worldwide as a therapeutic treatment for migraine. its pharmacological effect is mainly due to the presence of the sesquiterpene lactone parthenolide as well as of flavonoids. so far, there are no studies on standardization of pre-formulations or phytomedicines containing this herb. the present study aimed at developing a pre-formulation using a standardized spray-dried extract of feverfew and further designing and standardizing enteric coated tablets. in this work, the spray-dried extract of feverfew was evaluated for its parthenolide, santin and total flavonoid content, parthenolide solubility, particle size, tapped density, hygroscopicity, angle of repose and moisture content. tablets containing the spray-dried extract were tested for their average weight, friability, hardness, and disintegration time. the total flavonoid and parthenolide contents in the spray-dried extract were 1.31 % and 0.76% w/w, respectively. the spray-dried extract presented consistent pharmacotechnical properties and allowed its tableting by direct compression. tablet properties were in accordance with the proposed specifications. the procedures described herein can be used to prepare and evaluate pre-formulations of feverfew with adequate properties for the development of a high-quality phytomedicine.
Determining Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.) Essential Oil on Some Microbial Strains  [cached]
Zahra Izadi,Majid Aghaalikhani,Mahmood Esna-Ashari,Poorandokht Davoodi
Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences , 2013,
Abstract: Background: Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.) is a herbal plant that has anti- septic, anti-microbial, anti-parasitic and anti-inflammatory effects. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of shoot essential oil (essential oil of the aerial parts of the plant) of the feverfew on a number of microorganisms including gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, filamentous fungi and yeasts. Materials and Methods: In this empirical study, plant samples were collected at the full blooming stage. Shoot essential oil was extracted using hydro-distillation technique and Clevenger apparatus. Components of the extract were identified using GC and GC/MS apparatus and its antimicrobial properties were evaluated using diffusion in Agar method (disk diffusion) and dilution in the well (Micro-broth dilution).Results: Among 35 compounds identified in the essential oil of the feverfew, camphor (45%), chrysanthenyl acetate (21.5) and camphene (9.6%), were the main components respectively. Essential oil showed very good antifungal effect which was stronger than its antibacterial effect. Gram-negative bacteria were less sensitive to the essential oil than gram-positive bacteria. The mean diameter of inhibition zone, in the bio-assessment of the effect of feverfew essential oil on gram-positive bacteria and fungi was respectively more than the effect of vancomycin and amphotericin B and this effect on gram-negative bacteria was less than the effect of gentamicin. This effect is attributed to the high value of camphor, chrysanthenyl acetate and camphene found in the essential oil.Conclusion: Feverfew essential oil could be utilized as a sound and harmless substitute for the antibiotics.
Involvement of Opioidergic and Sertoninergic systems in anti-nociceptive effect of Tanacetum parthenium  [cached]
Masoud Fereidoni,Leila Etemadi
Physiology and Pharmacology , 2008,
Abstract: Introduction: Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) (T.p.) is widely used in folk medicine to treat many diseases. We reported the analgesic effect of T.p. flower and leaf previously. Present study is designed to find the mechanism underlying the anti-nociceptive effect of the aqueous extract of T.p. flower. Method: Based on our previous study, the dose 50 mg/kg i.p. of the T.p. aqueous extract had a potent analgesic effect on mice (NMRI) (20 ± 2 g) in formalin test which is used in the present study also. Here, we study the roles of opioidergic, sertoninergic and α - adrenergic systems on the anti-nociceptive effect of the extract. Animals had pretreated with drugs, 15 min before the extract treatments, including opioid antagonist naloxane (5mg/kg, i.p.), sertoninergic antagonist cyproheptadine (4 mg/kg, i.p.) and α-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine (20 mg/kg, i.p.) separately (each group with n≥6). Saline and extract used as controls. Results: In contrast to extract analgesic effect, pretreatment with naloxan increased the pain sensation in the neurogenic phase of formalin test (p<0.001). Pretreatment with cyproheptadine increased the sensation of pain in both early and late phases (p<0.05). Inhibition of α -adrenergic system was not be able to attenuate the anti-nociceptive effect of the extract. Discussion: The involvement of sertoninergic system in anti-nociceptive effect of the T.p. extract is proposed by the results. Also the involvement of opioidergic system has to be mentioned in this effect.
Measurement of melatonin in alcoholic and hot water extracts of Tanacetum parthenium, Tripleurospermum disciforme and Viola odorata
M Ansari,Kh Rafiee,N Yasa,S Vardasbi
DARU : Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: "nBackground and the purpose of the study:Melatonin has recently been found in several plant tissues. Some reports show that the majority of the herbs containing the high level of melatonin have been used traditionally to treat neurological disorders or diseases associated with the generation of free radicals. Current study was undertaken to screen some medicinal plant species with historical evidence of efficacy in the treatment of neurological and antioxidant deficiency related disorders for their melatonin content. The melatonin content of boiled and alcoholic extracts were also compared. "nMethods: In this study, three medicinal herbs, Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz. Bip. (Asteraceae), Tripleurospermum disciforme (C.A.Mey) Schultz. Bip. (Asteraceae) and Viola odorata (L.) (Violaceae) were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UV), enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and thin layer chromatography (TLC). "nResults: Melatonin content in the dry plant powders differed with different assay methods (p < 0.001). For example, the melatonin content in T. disciforme was determined as 3.073 μg/g and 2.906 μg/g by the HPLC and the ELISA methods, respectively. Major conclusion:The results demonstrated that a hydroalcoholic solution could extract more melatonin from flowers of the herbs than hot water (p < 0.001). The presence of melatonin in these plant tissues may provide some explanation for the anecdotal evidence of their physiological effects in humans.
Production of parthenolide in organ and callus cultures of Tanacetum parthenium (L.)
MEM Rateb, SS El-Hawary, AM El-Shamy, EMA Yousef
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2007,
Abstract: The in vitro micropropagation of the seeds of Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz-Bip. family Asteraceae was performed on half strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 0.2% gibrellic acid. The explants were in vitro cultured on MS-medium using different plant growth regulators, culture media ingredients and carbon sources. Parthenolide content in the different established cultures was studied and compared with that present in the open field herb. Results revealed that using half strength MSmedium containing 50 g/l glucose or fructose as a carbon source and 0.5 mg/l benzyl aminopurine (BAP) resulted in significantly higher parthenolide content than that present in the open field herb. In addition, bud sprouting ability, number and length of shootlets and number of leaves of different explants under different treatments were studied. The in vitro callus formation was conducted on MSmedium using different plant growth regulators and culture media ingredients. Parthenolide was detected in callus culture for the first time in only two different hormonal treatments which were MS medium containing 0.5 mg/l BAP or 0.5 mg/l naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). In addition, callusing capacity and weight of callus of different explants under different treatments were also determined. Parthenolide content was determined in the explants as well as in callus using RP-HPLC on Luna C18 column and SPD-10A UV detector. The mobile phase used was acetonitrile: water (55 : 45) and the flow rate was 1.5 ml/min at the ambient temperature.
Essential Oil of the Root of Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schulz. Bip. (Asteraceae) from Iran
Faraz Mojab,Sayyed Abbas Tabatabai,Hasanali Naghdi-Badi,Fahima Ghadyani
Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research , 2007,
Abstract: The roots and rhizomes of Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schulz. Bip. (Asteraceae), have been used in Iranian traditional medicine under the name of Aqhovan, as digestive and stomachic tonic. Composition of the essential oil, which was obtained from the root of T. parthenium collected from Karaj, was determined by gas chromatography, combined GC/MS and GC/IR. In total, 20 components (92% of essential oil) were identified. Major constituents were camphor (30.2%), (Z)- chrysanthenyl acetate (26.5%), α-farnesene (11.1%) and spathulenol (8.2%).
Efficacy of a Combination of Tanacetum parthenium, 5-Hydroxy Tryptophan and Magnesium (Aurastop) in Episodic Migraine Prevention: A Multicentric Observational Study
Federico Mainardi, Paola Merlo, Ferdinando Maggioni, Giorgio Zanchin, Giorgio Dalla Volta
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104765
Objective: To verify the efficacy and safety of the new combination of Tanacetum parthenium 150 mg, 5-hydrossitriptophan (5-HTTP) 20 mg and magnesium 185 mg (Aurastop) in the prophylactic treatment of episodic migraine without aura (MO). Methods: Eighty patients suffering from MO for at least 6 months with a monthly frequency of 3 to 8 attacks and 4 to12 headache days, were enrolled in this open study and treated with Aurastop twice daily per os for 3 months. The reduction of headache days per month was assessed as the primary end-point, while the secondary end-points were: 1) reduction of the number of MO attacks; 2) reduction of intensity of the pain; 3) reduction of acute treatment drug intake; 4) subjective change of pain intensity. Results: All the parameters significantly improved at the end of the observational period of treatment with Aurastop. In more detail: a significant reduction of the number of headache days (from 9.1 ± 2.0 before treatment to 3.2 ± 1.8 post treatment, p < 0.001); number of attacks per month (from 6.0 ± 1.2 to 2.4 ± 1.1, p < 0.001); pain intensity (in a visual analogical scale [VAS]: from 7 ± 1.0 to 3.2 ± 0.7, p < 0.001); number of drug doses for acute treatment (triptans, simple analgesics or in combination) assumed by each subject per month (from 9.5 ± 1.8 to 2.2 ± 1.1, p < 0.001). No serious adverse events were observed. Conclusion: Albeit obtained with the limitation of open-trials, our findings suggest that AURASTOP is a promising approach for migraine prevention; further investigations are required to confirm the safety and efficacy of this treatment.
Comparative effects of the herbal constituent parthenolide (Feverfew) on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory gene expression in murine spleen and liver
Alexa T Smolinski, James J Pestka
Journal of Inflammation , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1476-9255-2-6
Abstract: Mice were co-treated i.p. with LPS (1 mg/kg bw) and parthenolide (5 mg/kg bw) and blood, spleen and liver collected. Serum was analyzed for IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1β by ELISA. Total RNA was extracted from spleen and liver, and real-time RT-PCR was used to determine relative mRNA expression of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and COX-2.LPS induced increases in serum IL-6 and TNF-α concentrations with only IL-6 being suppressed in parthenolide-treated mice. Induction of IL-6 mRNA was reduced, TNF-α and COX-2 mRNAs unchanged, and IL-1β mRNA increased in spleens of parthenolide plus LPS co-treated animals compared to LPS-only. No significant differences were observed in inflammatory gene expression between these two groups in liver samples. Overall, mRNA expression of each proinflammatory gene was much higher in spleen when compared to liver.In summary, only one gene, IL-6, was modestly suppressed by parthenolide co-exposure which contrasts with many in vitro studies suggesting anti-inflammatory effects of this compound. Also, LPS evoked greater effects in spleen than liver on expression of proinflammatory genes. Further study of the effects of parthenolide and other herbal constituents on inflammatory gene expression using model animal systems as described here are critical to evaluating efficacy of such supplements as well as elucidating their mechanisms of action.Parthenolide, the major sesquiterpene lactone derived from the feverfew extract (Tanacetum parthenium), has been studied for its inhibitory effects on inflammation in cell culture and, to a limited extent, in live animals. This constituent has been shown to attenuate a variety of inflammatory endpoints [1-12]. Recent attention has turned to the determination of the molecular mechanisms by which parthenolide imparts its effects on inflammatory responses.Investigations of the anti-inflammatory properties of parthenolide, and feverfew have focused on suppression of primary inflammatory endpoints such as platelet aggregation [1]
Efficacy of a Combination of Tanacetum parthenium, 5-Hydroxy Tryptophan and Magnesium (Aurastop) in the Prevention of High Frequency Migraine with Aura
Giorgio Dalla Volta, Paola Zavarise, Laura Perego, Alessandro Pezzini
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104939
Object: To verify the efficacy and safety of the new combination of Tanacetum parthenium 150 mg, 5-hydrossitriptophan (5-HTTP) 20 mg and magnesium 185 mg (Aurastop) in the prophylactic treatment of high frequency migraine with aura (MWA). According to the international headache classification (IHCD 3 beta version) the aura phenomena have a duration of 5 - 60 minutes for any of the usual disturbances (visual, somatosensory and speech disturbance) but no classification describes the frequency of this phenomena. Patients who experience migraine aura emphasize the emotional impact of such a phenomenon, mostly because of the severe, though transient, disability caused by the aura symptoms (i.e., inability to work or driving a vehicle). Furthermore, a profound asthenia lasts for about 48 hours after the resolution of the painful phase. Materials and Method: 18 patients (F: n = 10, M: n = 8, mean age: 28) presenting with an ICHD-3 beta diagnosis of migraine with aura (MWA) with a frequency of more than 5 attacks of migraine with aura per month since at least 6 months, were enrolled in the survey and treated with Aurastop© twice a day for a period of 3 months. Diary cards were filled in during a 3-month period before the beginning of the survey and during the 3-month duration of the study. The reduction of MWA attacks per month was assessed as the primary end-point; the reduction of the duration and disability of the aura and of the intensity of the headache were considered as secondary end-points. Results: A statistically significant reduction of MWA attacks/month was observed: more than 95% of the patients referred a reduction >50% of the frequency, 66.6% a reduction of more than 70%, and 16.6% a complete disappearance of the attacks after the first week of therapy. Moreover, a sensible reduction of the duration and disability of the aura phenomena was reported by more than 90% of the patients and, in the 55% of the patients also a reduction of the intensity of the headache. No side effects were reported. The efficacy started to appear during the first month of intake and was maintained during the three months of therapy.
A Combination of Tanacetum parthenium, Griffonia simplicifolia and Magnesium (Aurastop) as Symptomatic Acute Treatment for Migraine Aura: A Retrospective Cohort Study
Paola Zavarise, Giorgio Dalla Volta
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103660
Background: effective treatments for migraine aura and related symptoms are not yet well established. In the last years, several herbal and/or nutraceutical preparations have been proposed as potential treatment. We report the results of a retrospective analysis on the synergistic effect of three nutraceutical components (Tanacetum parthenium, Griffonia simpliciofila and Magnesium, Aurastop) as symptomatic treatment of migraine aura and related symptoms. Method: Forty-nine subjects with headache with aura were recruited from the headache Center of the Istituto Clinico Citta’ di Brescia to enter the studied that consist to treat the first 3 aura attacks as usual and the next 3 taking a tablet of Aurastop at the beginning of the aura phenomena. They had to describe aura and headache characteristics of previous three attacks (t1) and the modification of these parameters with the assumption of Aurastop for the following three attacks (t2). Results: A significant reduction (>50%) in aura duration (t1 = 33.6 ± 10.1 minutes vs. t2 = 9.4 ± 6.2 minutes, p < 0.01 FWER corrected) as well as in overall disability (median [interquartile range]) (t1 = 5[4 - 5] vs. t2 = 1[1 - 2], p < 0.01 FWER corrected) was evident. Furthermore, modification of aura type as well as a series of parameters more related to headache (number of headache attacks, duration, intensity, utilization of analgesics and response to symptomatic treatment) was influenced by Aurastop utilization (p < 0.01 FWER corrected). No significant adverse effects were recorded after the assumption of Aurastop. Conclusions: the combined and synergistic effect of Tanacetum parthenium, Griffonia simpliciofila and Magnesium (Aurastop) highlights the idea that symptomatic treatment potentially modulating cortical spreading depression could deserve attention to mitigate aura and related symptoms (migraine as well as long-lasting discomfort). Further blinded, placebo-controlled studies on larger groups are warranted.
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