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Composition and antimicrobial activities of the leaf and flower essential oils of Lippia chevalieri and Ocimum canum from Burkina Faso
IHN Bassole, R Nebie, A Savadogo, CT Ouattara, N Barro, SA Traore
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2005,
Abstract: The essential oils of the air dried leaves and flowers of Lippia chevalieri Moldenke and Ocimum canum Sims from Burkina Faso were analysed by GC-MS. Essential oil of the leaves of L. chevalieri is composed mainly of thymol (27.4%), p-cymene (21.1%), and 2-phenyl-ethyl-propionate (12.6%), while the oils from flower is composed of b-elemene (33%), ethyl cinnamate (30.3%) and a-amorphene (12.4%). O. canum leaves and flowers oils consisted mainly in 1,8-cineole (60.1%) and cis, transpiperitol (68.5%), respectively. The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils were evaluated against 9 bacteria by agar diffusion method. The leaves of both plants showed higher activity than their flowers. The leaves of L. chevalieri were active against Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria whereas only Gram positive bacteria were sensitive to the essential oil of the O. canum leaves. Flower essential oils did not show any significant activity.
Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Bagora Bayala, Ima?l Henri Nestor Bassole, Charlemagne Gnoula, Roger Nebie, Albert Yonli, Laurent Morel, Gilles Figueredo, Jean-Baptiste Nikiema, Jean-Marc A. Lobaccaro, Jacques Simpore
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0092122
Abstract: This research highlights the chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of essential oils from leaves of Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum americanum, Hyptis spicigera, Lippia multiflora, Ageratum conyzoides, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Zingiber officinale. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and gas chromatography–flame ionization detector. Major constituents were α-terpineol (59.78%) and β-caryophyllene (10.54%) for Ocimum basilicum; 1, 8-cineol (31.22%), camphor (12.730%), α-pinene (6.87%) and trans α-bergamotene (5.32%) for Ocimum americanum; β-caryophyllene (21%), α-pinene (20.11%), sabinene (10.26%), β-pinene (9.22%) and α-phellandrene (7.03%) for Hyptis spicigera; p-cymene (25.27%), β-caryophyllene (12.70%), thymol (11.88), γ-terpinene (9.17%) and thymyle acetate (7.64%) for Lippia multiflora; precocene (82.10%)for Ageratum conyzoides; eucalyptol (59.55%), α-pinene (9.17%) and limonene (8.76%) for Eucalyptus camaldulensis; arcurcumene (16.67%), camphene (12.70%), zingiberene (8.40%), β-bisabolene (7.83%) and β-sesquiphellandrène (5.34%) for Zingiber officinale. Antioxidant activities were examined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-?sulfonicacid (ABTS) methods. O. basilicum and L. multiflora exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in DPPH and ABTS tests, respectively. Anti-inflammatory properties were evaluated by measuring the inhibition of lipoxygenase activity and essential oil of Z. officinale was the most active. Anti-proliferative effect was assayed by the measurement of MTT on LNCaP and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines, and SF-763 and SF-767 glioblastoma cell lines. Essential oils from A. conyzoides and L. multiflora were the most active on LNCaP and PC-3 cell lines, respectively. The SF-767 glioblastoma cell line was the most sensitive to O. basilicum and L. multiflora EOs while essential oil of A. conyzoides showed the highest activity on SF-763 cells. Altogether these results justify the use of these plants in traditional medicine in Burkina Faso and open a new field of investigation in the characterization of the molecules involved in anti-proliferative processes.
Optimization of Hydrocarbons Biodegradation by Bacterial Strains Isolated from Wastewaters in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso: Case Study of SAE 40/50 Used Oils and Diesel  [PDF]
Adama Sawadogo, Harmonie C. Otoidobiga, Léon W. Nitiema, Alfred S. Traoré, Dayéri Dianou
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment (JACEN) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jacen.2016.51001
Abstract: Environmental pollution with petroleum and petrochemical products such as diesel and used oils has been recognized as one of the most serious current problem in the world, especially in developing countries. These petrochemical products devastate the soil, surface and underground waters and alter the microbial population at the polluted sites. Thus, the present work aims to optimize the biodegradation of diesel and two used oils (SAE 40 and SAE 50) by bacterial strains namely Acinetobacter S2 and Pseudomonas S7 using either nutrient factors (yeast extract, peptone or trace elements) or surfactants (tween 80 or Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate: SDS). The strains are incubated alone or together with the used oils or diesel supplemented or not with nutrient factors or surfactants for 14, 28, 42 and 56 days, respectively. For all the incubation period, the hydrocarbons degradation rates are determined by gravimetric assay. The results obtained show that nutrient factors increase significantly SAE 50 used oil biodegradation (p = 0.009). Similarly, tween 80 increases SAE 50 and SAE 40 used oils biodegradation but not diesel one. The results also show a significant difference between biodegradation rates at 14, 28, 42 and 56 days for all the hydro-carbons tested (p < 0.0001). For all the hydrocarbons, the association of strains Acinetobacter S2 and Pseudomonas S7 increases the degradation over the one of the strains alone.
Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of polyphenols from ethnomedicinal plants of Burkina Faso
Damintoti Karou, Mamoudou H Dicko, Jacques Simpore, Alfred S Traore
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2005,
Abstract: Polyphenols from four medicinal plants of Burkina Faso, Combretum micranthum, Khaya senegalensis, Pterocarpus erinaceus and Sida acuta, were screened for their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities against pathogenic bacteria. The medicinal plants displayed different polyphenols contents and antioxidant activities. The bark of P. erinaceus had the highest antioxidant activity. Some microorganisms were susceptible to polyphenol extracts with minimal bactericidal concentration values between 20 and 2000 mg/ml while other microorganisms appeared to be resistant to the extracts. Microbicide and microbiostatic activities of the extracts were dependent on the type of strains. Results suggest that these plants are not only interesting sources for antimicrobial activities but also potential sources of phenolic antioxidants.
Production and Characterization of Pozzolan with Raw Clay from Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Mohamed Seynou, Younoussa Millogo, Lamine Zerbo, Issiaka Sanou, Fran?ois Ganon, Raguilnaba Ouedraogo, Kalsibiri Kaboré
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2016.43018
Abstract: Four raw deposits clayey materials in Burkina Faso have been characterized using X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and ICP-AES to evaluate their suitability to be used as pozzolan in cement. The samples have been activated by thermal treatment at 730°C during 5 hours. The obtained metakaolin was investigated by means of complementary techniques for their use as pozzolan in building materials. Fineness, surface area and amorphousness of metakaolins were the dominant factors which influenced their pozzolan reactivity. The compressive strengths of blended specimens were slightly increased with metakaolins named MK1 and MK2 than the reference for the substitution of 20 - 25 wt%. This was due to the metakaolins’ pozzolan reactivity and their filler effects which promoted CSH formation and reduced pores in the specimens. MK1 and MK2 were suitable for replacement of Portland cement in the field of building materials.
Nutraceutical Assessment of Four Amaranthus Species from Burkina Faso  [cached]
Ouedraogo Ibrahim,Hilou Adama,Sombie Pierre Alexandre Eric Djifaby,Compaore Moussa
Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: The use of the amaranths as vegetables is developed in Burkina Faso. Most known are Amaranthus dubius Mart. Ex. Thell, Amaranthus graecizans L., Amaranthus hybridus L. and Amaranthus viridis L. A. hybridus is most used and abundantly cultivated, however the others are more or less wild. Theaim of the present study was to investigate the nutraceutical potentialities of four Amaranthus species from Burkina Faso. The aqueous decoction extract of the four species contains the highest ofpolyphenols, flavonoids,flavonols and proteins contents. The aqueous decoction extracts were used for the evaluation of the antioxidant activity and xanthine oxidase inhibitory potentiality. The A. dubius showed the most potent antioxidant activity with a CE50 of 1.26±0.46, mgm2 the β-carotene bleaching method. A. hybridus showed the most potent antioxidant activity (66.99±1.65 μmolAEAC/g) in the DPPH radical scavengingmethod. The aqueous extracts of the four speciesshowed weak inhibition of the xanthine oxidaseat the concentration of 200 μg/mL.The four Amaranthus species are rich in microelements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, P, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu) and carotenoids compounds. The antinutritionals factors were also quantified. The oxalate amount in these species is fairly high. The highest minerals contents and the antioxidant activity of the amaranths could explain theirlarge use by all the socioeconomic strata of the population.These plants would constitute a source of dietetic antioxidants.
Evaluation of Enzymes Inhibition Activities of Medicinal Plant from Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Mindiediba Jean Bangou,Martin Kiendrebeogo,Nag-Tiero Roland Meda,Ahmed Yacouba Coulibaly
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to evaluate some enzymes inhibitory effects of 11 plant species belonging to 9 families from Burkina Faso. Methanolic extracts were used for their Glutathione-s-transferase (GST), Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Carboxylesterase (CES) and Xanthine Oxidase (XO) inhibitory activities at final concentration of 100 μg mL-1. The total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins were also determined spectrophotometrically using Folin-Ciocalteu, AlCl3 and ammonium citrate iron reagents, respectively. Among the 11 species tested, the best inhibitory percentages were found with Euphorbia hirta, Sclerocarya birrea and Scoparia dulcis (inhibition>40%) followed by Annona senegalensis, Annona squamosa, Polygala arenaria and Ceratotheca sesamoides (inhibition>25%). The best total phenolic and tannin contents were found with S. birrea with 56.10 mg GAE/100 mg extract and 47.75 mg TAE/100 mg extract, respectively. E hirta presented the higher total flavonoids (9.96 mg QE/100 mg extract). It's was found that Sclerocarya birrea has inhibited all enzymes at more than 30% and this activity is correlated to total tannins contents. Contrary to S. birrea, the enzymatic activities of E. hirta and S. dulcis are correlated to total flavonoids contents. Present findings suggest that the methanolic extracts of those plant species are potential inhibitors of GST, AChE, CES and XO and confirm their traditional uses in the treatment of mental disorders, gout, painful inflammations and cardiovascular diseases.
Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Three Species of Lannea from Burkina Faso  [PDF]
L. Ouattara,J. Koudou,C. Zongo,N. Barro
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: The main goal of this study was to determine the phenol content, the antibacterial and the antioxidant activities of the three species of Lannea largely use in traditional medicine in Burkina Faso. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of hydro alcoholic extract (70%V/V ethanol/distilled water) from the barks of Lannea acida, Lannea microcarpa and Lannea velutina (Anacardiaceae) were determined by the method of Folin Ciocalteu and AlCl3 by spectrophotometry. These extracts were tested for their antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Antioxidant activity was determined by the method of DPPH and compared with quercetin. Antibacterial activity was performed by disk diffusion and broth microdilution essays against nine reference bacterial strains including gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. L.acida exhibited the highest total phenolic contents (40.55±0.26 g GAE/100 g) which correlated with better antioxidant activity (IC50 = 345.72±7.76 ?g mL-1). Furthermore the highest content of total flavonoids (11.02±0.04 g QE/100 g) and the largest anti bacterial spectrum (7.82 ?g mL-1?MIC? 62.5 ?g mL-1) were recorded with L.velutina. These results show that the barks of L. acida and L.velutina could be used respectively as a potential natural antioxidant and antibacterial agent.
In vitro antiplasmodial and cytotoxic properties of some medicinal plants from western Burkina Faso
Souleymane Sanon,Adama Gansane,Lamoussa P. Ouattara,Abdoulaye Traore
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.4102/ajlm.v2i1.81
Abstract: Background: Resistance of malaria parasites to existing drugs complicates treatment, but an antimalarial vaccine that could protect against this disease is not yet available. It is therefore necessary to find new effective and affordable medicines. Medicinal plants could be a potential source of antimalarial agents. Some medicinal plants from Burkina Faso were evaluated for their antiplasmodial and cytotoxic properties in vitro. Methods: Crude dichloromethane, methanol, water-methanol, aqueous and alkaloids extracts were prepared for 12 parts of 10 plants. Chloroquine-resistant malaria strain K1 was used for the in vitro sensibility assay. The Plasmodium lactacte dehydrogenase technique was used to determine the 50% inhibitory concentration of parasites activity (IC50). The cytotoxic effects were determined with HepG2 cells, using the tetrazolium-based colorimetric technique, and the selectivity index (SI) was calculated. Results: Sixty crude extracts were prepared. Seven extracts from Terminalia avicenoides showed IC50 < 5 μg/mL. The IC50 of dichloromethane, methanol, aqueous and alkaloids extracts ranged between 1.6 μg/mL and 4.5 μg/mL. Three crude extracts from Combretum collinum and three from Ficus capraefolia had an IC50 ranging between 0.2 μg/mL and 2.5 μg/mL. Crude extracts from these three plants had no cytotoxic effect, with SI > 1. The other plants have mostly moderate or no antimalarial effects. Some extracts from Cordia myxa, Ficus capraefolia and Opilia celtidifolia showed cytotoxicity, with an SI ranging between 0.4 and 0.9. Conclusion: Our study showed a good antiplasmodial in vitro activity of Terminalia avicenoides, Combretum collinum and Ficus capraefolia. These three plants may contain antiplasmodial molecules that could be isolated by bio-guided phytochemical studies.
Enhancing Sustainability of Cotton Production Systems in West Africa: A Summary of Empirical Evidence from Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Jeffrey Vitale,Marc Ouattarra,Gaspard Vognan
Sustainability , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/su3081136
Abstract: Africa has been hesitant to adopt agricultural biotechnology, lagging behind global trends over the past decade. One exception is Burkina Faso, a West African country that commercially released 125,000 ha of Bt cotton in 2009. Bt cotton may serve as a working example of how African countries can enhance sustainability using modern, science-driven technology to increase production levels while reducing input use and energy consumption. This paper reports the potential impact that Bt cotton can have on sustainability in Burkina Faso’s cotton sector based by summarizing empirical evidence from previously published studies. Based on the summary of published data collected from six years of field trials and producer surveys, Bt cotton increased cotton yields by an average of 21.3% and raised income by $106.14 per ha. Using an energy balance model, the introduction of Bt cotton would also result in a 6.6% saving in energy use. The significant increase in productivity and economic returns could be the catalyst for Burkina Faso, and other African countries, to emerge from the decade or so of stagnation and regain their competitive stance in world cotton markets while providing environmental and social benefits.
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