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Synthesis of the minor sex pheromone component of two brazilian soybean stink bugs (Het.: Pentatomidae), and an analogue compound
Zarbin, Paulo H. G.;Reckziegel, Aurélia;Plass, Ernst;Oliveira, Alfredo R. M. de;Simonelli, Fábio;Marques, Francisco de A.;
Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-50532000000600004
Abstract: the stink bugs euschistus heros and piezodorus guildinii (heteroptera: pentatomidae) are economically important soybean pests in brazil. an intriguing characteristic of these species is the fact that they use the same chemical compounds as sex pheromone, e.g., methyl 2,6,10-trimethyldodecanoate (1) (minor) and methyl 2,6,10-trimethyltridecanoate (2). in order to investigate the specific biological function of these molecules and to increase the knowledge of the communication system of each species, we have synthesized the minor component 1 and an analogue compound, methyl 2,6,10-trimethyltetradecanoate (3). these compounds will be tested on indoor bioassay, in addition with the previously synthesized major component 2.
Synthesis of the minor sex pheromone component of two brazilian soybean stink bugs (Het.: Pentatomidae), and an analogue compound  [cached]
Zarbin Paulo H. G.,Reckziegel Aurélia,Plass Ernst,Oliveira Alfredo R. M. de
Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society , 2000,
Abstract: The stink bugs Euschistus heros and Piezodorus guildinii (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) are economically important soybean pests in Brazil. An intriguing characteristic of these species is the fact that they use the same chemical compounds as sex pheromone, e.g., methyl 2,6,10-trimethyldodecanoate (1) (minor) and methyl 2,6,10-trimethyltridecanoate (2). In order to investigate the specific biological function of these molecules and to increase the knowledge of the communication system of each species, we have synthesized the minor component 1 and an analogue compound, methyl 2,6,10-trimethyltetradecanoate (3). These compounds will be tested on indoor bioassay, in addition with the previously synthesized major component 2.
First cases of exclusive paternal care in stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)
Requena, Gustavo S.;Nazareth, Taís M.;Schwertner, Cristiano F.;Machado, Glauco;
Zoologia (Curitiba) , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1984-46702010000600026
Abstract: we describe paternal care in two pentatomid bugs, lopadusa (lopadusa) augur st?l, 1860 and edessa nigropunctata berg, 1884. field and laboratory observations showed that males remain with their eggs and early hatched nymphs, while females abandon the eggs after oviposition. guarding males defensive behaviors towards their clutches were similar to those described for guarding females of pentatomids. since there is no detailed information on the internal phylogeny of pentatomidae, it is not possible to make a robust inference on whether paternal care in l. augur and e. nigropunctata has arisen independently or not. if the latter, the two new cases of paternal care we describe here represent the fifth event of independent evolution of this rare behavioral trait in heteroptera.
The chemical volatiles (Semiochemicals) produced by neotropical stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)
Moraes, Maria C.B.;Pareja, Martín;Laumann, Raúl A.;Borges, Miguel;
Neotropical Entomology , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-566X2008000500001
Abstract: in recent years the growing concern about environmental changes and how we are using the natural resources have triggered a search for natural products as alternatives to synthetic pesticides. the stink bugs produce a wide variety of chemical compounds (semiochemicals) that show potential to manage these insects. the stink bugs chinavia impicticornis (st?l), c. ubica (rolston), dichelops melacanthus (dallas), euschistus heros (f.), piezodorus guildinii (westwood), thyanta perditor (westwood) and tibraca limbativentris (st?l) had their blends of defensive compounds evaluated both qualitative and quantitatively. the main compounds identified on the glands of brazilian stink bugs are: 2-alkenals, mainly the e isomer; saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons; and 4 oxo-(e)-2-alkenals. the first sex attractant determined from a stink bug was obtained from nezara viridula l., and consists on a mix of two isomers cis - and trans bisabolene-epoxides. later the soybean stink bug e. heros was also studied and its sex attractant was identified as three esters methyl: 2,6,10-trimethyldecanoate, methyl 2,6,10-trimethyldodecanoate, and methyl e2, z4-decadienoate. recently, three new brazilian sting bugs were studied and had their sex attractant elucidated. males of t. perditor produce the ester, methyl 2e,4z,6z-decatrienoate. whereas, the stink bug, p. guildinii has as sexual pheromone, the sesquiterpene β-sesquiphellandrene, and the stink bug t. limbativentris produces as sex attractant the zingiberenol. in this review we discuss the advances obtained on the behaviour and identification of sex and defensive compound of stink bugs from brazilian crops and the application of this knowledge to manage the stink bugs.
Mode of Action and Specificity of Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins in the Control of Caterpillars and Stink Bugs in Soybean Culture  [PDF]
Rogério Schünemann,Neiva Knaak,Lidia Mariana Fiuza
ISRN Microbiology , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/135675
Abstract: The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produces delta-endotoxins that possess toxic properties and can be used as biopesticides, as well as a source of genes for the construction of transgenic plants resistant to insects. In Brazil, the introduction of Bt soybean with insecticidal properties to the velvetbean caterpillar, the main insect pest of soybean, has been seen a promising tool in the management of these agroecosystems. However, the increase in stink bug populations in this culture, in various regions of the country, which are not susceptible to the existing genetically modified plants, requires application of chemicals that damage the environment. Little is known about the actual toxicity of Bt to Hemiptera, since these insects present sucking mouthparts, which hamper toxicity assays with artificial diets containing toxins of this bacterium. In recent studies of cytotoxicity with the gut of different hemipterans, susceptibility in the mechanism of action of delta-endotoxins has been demonstrated, which can generate promising subsidies for the control of these insect pests in soybean. This paper aims to review the studies related to the selection, application and mode of action of Bt in the biological control of the major pest of soybean, Anticarsia gemmatalis, and an analysis of advances in research on the use of Bt for control hemipterans. 1. Introduction Soybean, Glycine max (L.), is the largest agricultural commodity of economic importance in Brazil, occupying large areas of planting, targeting both domestic consumption and the export market. Given its economic importance, the problems caused by the attack of insect pests reduce production and decrease the quality of the grains or seeds [1]. Among the insect groups stands out the velvetbean caterpillar: Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner 1818), Lepidoptera: Noctuidae; the brown stink bug: Euschistus heros (Fabricius 1798), Hemiptera: Pentatomidae; the small green stink bug: Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood 1837), Hemiptera: Pentatomidae; and the green stink bug: Nezara viridula (Linneus 1758), Hemiptera: Pentatomidae. The use of microorganisms has assumed a prominent position among the options that seek to control insect pests without the use of chemicals and with high specific toxicity applied in agroecosystems. The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner 1909), Bt, stands out representing approximately 95% of microorganisms used in biological control of agricultural pests in different cultures [2]. Besides the economic aspect and the safety to human health [3], this bacterium
Stink bugs (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae) and an unique host plant in the Brazilian subtropics
Panizzi, Ant?nio Ricardo;Grazia, Jocélia;
Iheringia. Série Zoologia , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0073-47212001000100003
Abstract: stink bugs are seed/fruit sucking insects feeding on an array of host plants. among them, an exotic tree called privet, ligustrum lucidum ait. (oleaceae), is very common in the urban areas of the brazilian subtropics, where it is utilized as food source and shelter for over a decem species of bugs, year round. the species composition, their performance and abundance on this host, and possible causes for this association are discussed and illustrated.
DIVERSITY OF THE SOUTHERN GREEN STINK BUG NEZARA VIRIDULA (L.) (HETEROPTERA: PENTATOMIDAE)
V MEGLI?,M VIRANT-DOBERLET,J ?U?TAR-VOZLI?,S SU?NIK
Journal of Central European Agriculture , 2002,
Abstract: The southern green stink bug Nezara viridula (L.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) is a global pest of considerable ecological, agricultural and economical interest. The ancestral home of this species is supposed to be Africa and/or Mediterranean and presumably it was spread worldwide during the last two centuries with human trade and agriculture. Bugs found today on different continents do not differ morphologically, however there are substantial differences in their mating behaviour. We used horizontal starch gel electrophoresis to determine the suitability of biochemical markers for assessment of genetic variation between geographically isolated populations of N. viridula. The initial survey of populations from Slovenia, France, French West Indies and Brazil resulted in the resolution of polymorphic banding patterns within the following enzyme systems: GPI, IDH, MDH, ME, MPI and PGM. Results indicate there are consistent differences among tested populations.
Phytophagous stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae; Coreidae) associated with macadamia in South Africa  [PDF]
Pieter Schalk Schoeman
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2013.33027
Abstract:

Bathycoelia natalicola (Distant) is the dominant stink bug on macadamias in South Africa. This insect occurred throughout the year but was particularly numerous during summer months when developing macadamia nuts were available on the trees. The presence of nymphs and adults throughout the winter as well as the absence of seasonal polyphenism indicates that true diapause may not occur in areas with mild subtropical climates. After harvest, during winter when no nuts were available, the winter stink bug complex consisting of Nezara pallidocons-persa Stal, Nezara prunasis Dallas and Atelocera raptoria Germarbecame was more numerous. The Nezara species do not breed in macadamias indicating that macadamia is possibly not a preferred host plant. Few individuals of the polyphagous pest, Pseudotheraptus wayi brown were recovered with the branch shaking technique suggesting that this technique is possibly not suitable to monitor for this insect. Considerable P. wayi damage levels were however, detected by dissecting prematurely aborted nuts.

Duration of feeding and superficial and in-depth damage to soybean seed by selected species of stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)
Depieri, RA;Panizzi, AR;
Neotropical Entomology , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-566X2011000200007
Abstract: laboratory studies were conducted to compare duration of feeding and superficial and in-depth damage to soybean (glycine max) seeds by the southern green stink bug, nezara viridula (l.), the neotropical brown stink bug, euschistus heros (f.), the red-banded stink bug, piezodorus guildinii (westwood), and the green-belly stink bug, dichelops melacanthus (dallas). results indicated that feeding time was significantly longer for n. viridula (≈ 133 min) compared to e. heros and d. melacanthus (≈ 70 min), but not different from p. guildinii (≈ 103 min). there was a positive correlation between feeding time and the resulting damage for e. heros, n. viridula and p. guildinii (r2 > 0.80, p < 0.0001), but not for d. melacanthus (r2 = 0.1011, p = 0.1493). the deepest seed damage (2.0 mm) was made by p. guildinii and the shallowest (0.5 mm) by d. melacanthus. the depth of the seed damage by e. heros and n. viridula (0.8, 1.2 mm, respectively) was intermediate in comparison to the other species studied. feeding damage to the seed endosperm caused variable cell disruption and protein body dissolution, particularly when p. guildinii fed on seeds, suggesting that the deleterious action of salivary enzymes was greater for this bug compared to the others.
RAPD analysis revealing polymorphism in egg parasitoids of soybean stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)
Aljanabi, Salah M.;Loiácono, Marta S.;Louren?o, Rodrigo T.;Borges, Miguel;Tigano, Myrian S.;
Anais da Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil , 1998, DOI: 10.1590/S0301-80591998000300009
Abstract: the solitary egg parasitoids (hymenoptera: scelionidae) of pentatomidae species complex are potential candidates for soybean (glycine max l.) integrated pest management programs in brazil. the correct identification of species and strains of these parasitoids is necessary to implement the use of biological control. polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was used to generate random amplification of polymorphic dna (rapd) from male individuals of telenomus podisi ashmead and trissolcus spp. collected in a soybean field in brasília, brazil in 1996. the analysis of 18 primers used to screen trissolcus spp. individuals revealed different patterns related to the species analyzed. these results indicate the potential of rapd markers to differentiate t. teretis johnson, t. urichi crawford and t. basalis (wollaston). the 13 selected primers used to analyze t. podisi individuals produced 103 clear polymorphic scorable markers. different genotypes were observed within this population analyzed, although the cluster analysis applied to the rapd data showed high homogeneity (similarity >78.2%) among individuals.
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