Abstract:
Intracellular transport along microtubules or actin filaments, powered by molecular motors such as kinesins, dyneins or myosins, has been recently modeled using one-dimensional driven lattice gases. We discuss some generalizations of these models, that include extended particles and defects. We investigate the feasibility of single molecule experiments aiming to measure the average motor density and to locate the position of traffic jams by mean of a tracer particle. Finally, we comment on preliminary single molecule experiments performed in living cells.

Abstract:
Analysis of several gedanken experiments indicates that black hole complementarity cannot be ruled out on the basis of known physical principles. Experiments designed by outside observers to disprove the existence of a quantum-mechanical stretched horizon require knowledge of Planck-scale effects for their analysis. Observers who fall through the event horizon after sampling the Hawking radiation cannot discover duplicate information inside the black hole before hitting the singularity. Experiments by outside observers to detect baryon number violation will yield significant effects well outside the stretched horizon.

Abstract:
A demonstration experiment of the Ampere Law in electromagnetism is analyzed in detail. In particular, error is investigated by an inquiry approach which consists of the following processes: making hypothesis, verifying by experiment, modifying hypothesis, re-doing observation, making theoretical analyse, and drawing conclusion. Through those processes, the use of university physics demonstration experiments for inquiry learning is concretely illustrated.

Abstract:
This courseware contains a number of short video clips for demonstrating various physical phenomena in water waves and the way to set up those experiments in a water tank. In particular, reflection, refraction, diffraction and interference phenomena are illustrated in detail.

Abstract:
A new procedure for determining the acceptance or rejection of a system that undergoes a start-up demonstration set of tests is presented. It is a generalization of the recently introduced CSDF model (consecutive successes distant failures). According to the new total successes consecutive successes total failures distant failures (TSCSTFDF) procedure, a unit is accepted when either a total number of successful tests or a specified number of consecutive successes are observed before a total number of failures or the occurrence of near failures which are too close to each other. The practical advantage of this new procedure is the significant reduction in the expected number of required tests together with improved second-order statistics (standard deviation). 1. Introduction Start-up demonstration tests are performed in order to prove the reliability of power generating equipment like lawn mowers, water pumps, car batteries, and many sorts of electronic equipment. An example for an application has been mentioned by Antzoulakos et al. [1] regarding a conference center that wishes to replace its old slide projectors with modern ones. The outcomes of a set of demonstration tests that are carried out on the new projectors are recorded. The requirement may be in form of observing consecutive successes before the occurrence of a certain number of failures or before meeting a consecutive set of failures. As a result, the reliability of the equipment is determined. Various procedures exist for deciding whether the set of tests is successful which imply the decision on accepting or rejecting the unit in question. They are based on the commonly known theory of consecutive -out-of- systems [2]. Among others, there exist the consecutive successes (CS), total successes consecutive successes (TSCS), consecutive failures total failures (CSTF), consecutive successes distant failures (CSDF), and a general TSCSTFCF procedure. According to the simplest CS procedure, the equipment is accepted if there exists a certain run of successes of prespecified length ( ) when performing the set of tests [3, 4]. The combination of the requirement for consecutive successes and/or the total number of successes (TSCS) ( ,？？ ) as a basis for accepting the unit has been presented by Gera [5]. A more advanced procedure (CSTF) has been given by Balakrishnan and Chan [6], Smith and Griffith [7, 8], and Martin [9, 10]. Like before, the unit is accepted if there exists a run of successes ( ). However, it is rejected if a certain number of failures is reached before that run ( ). More general

Abstract:
An experimental study of the applicability of mechanics equations to describing the process of equilibrium establishing in an isolated spin system was performed. The time-reversion effects were used at the experiments. It was demonstrated, that the equations of mechanics do not describe the spin macrosystem transition to the equilibrium. The experimental results correspond to the theory which is based on the non-equilibrium thermodynamics methods and takes into account the quick decay of cross-correlations in the systems.

Abstract:
In this thesis, we have proposed some novel thought experiments involving foundations of quantum mechanics and quantum information theory, using quantum entanglement property. Concerning foundations of quantum mechanics, we have suggested some typical systems including two correlated particles which can distinguish between the two famous theories of quantum mechanics, i.e. the standard and Bohmian quantum mechanics, at the individual level of pair of particles. Meantime, the two theories present the same predictions at the ensemble level of particles. Regarding quantum information theory, two theoretical quantum communication schemes including quantum dense coding and quantum teleportation schemes have been proposed by using entangled spatial states of two EPR particles shared between two parties. It is shown that the rate of classical information gain in our dense coding scheme is greater than some previously proposed multi-qubit protocols by a logarithmic factor dependent on the dimension of Hilbert space. The proposed teleportation scheme can provide a complete wave function teleportation of an object having other degrees of freedom in our three-dimensional space, for the first time. All required unitary operators which are necessary in our state preparation and Bell state measurement processes are designed using symmetric normalized Hadamard matrix, some basic gates and one typical conditional gate, which are introduced here for the first time.

Abstract:
This paper describes a device, consisting of a central source and two widely separated detectors with six switch settings each, that provides a simple gedanken demonstration of Bell's theorem without relying on either statistical effects or the occurrence of rare events. The mechanism underlying the operation of the device is revealed for readers with a knowledge of quantum mechanics.

Abstract:
Intracellular transport is based on molecular motors that pull cargos along cytoskeletal filaments. One motor species always moves in one direction, e.g. conventional kinesin moves to the microtubule plus end, while cytoplasmic dynein moves to the microtubule minus end. However, many cellular cargos are observed to move bidirectionally, involving both plus-end and minus-end directed motors. The presumably simplest mechanism for such bidirectional transport is provided by a tug-of-war between the two motor species. This mechanism is studied theoretically using the load-dependent transport properties of individual motors as measured in single-molecule experiments. In contrast to previous expectations, such a tug-of-war is found to be highly cooperative and to exhibit seven different motility regimes depending on the precise values of the single motor parameters. The sensitivity of the transport process to small parameter changes can be used by the cell to regulate its cargo traffic.