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Influence of deficit irrigation on nutrient indices in wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.)  [PDF]
Krista Shellie, Brad Brown
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/as.2012.32031
Abstract: Deficit irrigation is widely used in wine grape production (Vitis vinifera L.) to meet wine quality goals yet its influence on tissue nutrient indices has not been well studied. The objective of this research was to determine whether response to water deficit compromised the prescriptive usefulness of tissue nutrient analyses. Tissue macro and micronutrient composition at bloom and veraison were evaluated over multiple seasons in nine wine grape cultivars grown under well-watered or deficit-irrigated conditions. Deficit-irrigated vines sampled at veraison had 2 to 12-fold higher petiole nitrate-nitrogen concentration, 6% lower blade nitrogen concentration and 13% lower blade copper concentration compared to well-watered vines. Water deficit influenced blade potassium concentration at veraison differently according to cultivar and was lower (cv. Malbec, Petite syrah, Viognier, Lemberger and Sangiovese), higher (cv. Merlot, Cabernet franc and Cabernet Sauvignon) or similar (cv. Grenache) to well-watered vines. Results from this study indicate that nutrient analysis of petiole or blade tissue sampled at veraison has limited diagnostic and prescriptive usefulness when vines are grown under a water deficit.
Head Space GC-MS Determination of Volatile Constituents in Wines (Appellation of Origin Controlled (AOC)) and Wine Distillates from Two Different Hellenic Native Grape Varieties (Vitis vinifera L.)
Gerogiannaki-Christopoulou Maria,T. Masouras,I. Provolisianou-Gerogiannaki,M. Polissiou
Journal of Food Technology , 2013,
Abstract: The volatile compounds are very important for the quality and acceptability of monovarietal wines and its distillates. The professional wine industries in the most areas are relatively young and little is known about those wines and its distillates volatile concentration. Those aromatic volatiles depend on many factors such as grape variety, alcoholic fermentation of must, microclima of cultivated area, vinification procedures employed, wine distillation etc. In this research the volatile constituents of two different Appellation of Origin Controlled (AOC) from Peloponissos (Island of The Ancient Kind Pelopos), Agiorgitiko and Morchofilero (Hellenic native grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.) wines and its distillates were determined by head space GC-MS. The distillates are characterized by a high content of alcohols, acetates, ethyl esters and fatty acids whereas terpenes and norisoprenoids, alcohols, ethyl esters, acetates, fatty acids were the main constituents present in monovarietal wines(5 g L 1 for a-ionone to 268.4 mg L 1 for methanol). The results shows that the concentration and the complicity of terpenes, norisoprenoids, alcohols, ethyl esters and other volatiles in wine and distillate samples gives the unique character of those Hellenic alcoholic drinks and the complicity of compositional characteristics gives the profile of those native Hellenic varieties.
Identification of tissue-specific, abiotic stress-responsive gene expression patterns in wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.) based on curation and mining of large-scale EST data sets
Richard L Tillett, Ali Ergül, Rebecca L Albion, Karen A Schlauch, Grant R Cramer, John C Cushman
BMC Plant Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-11-86
Abstract: A total of 62,236 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were generated from leaf, berry, and root tissues from vines subjected to abiotic stresses and compared with 32,286 ESTs sequenced from 20 public cDNA libraries. Curation to correct annotation errors, clustering and assembly of the berry and leaf ESTs with currently available V. vinifera full-length transcripts and ESTs yielded a total of 13,278 unique sequences, with 2302 singletons and 10,976 mapped to V. vinifera gene models. Of these, 739 transcripts were found to have significant differential expression in stressed leaves and berries including 250 genes not described previously as being abiotic stress responsive. In a second analysis of 16,452 ESTs from a normalized root cDNA library derived from roots exposed to multiple, short-term, abiotic stresses, 135 genes with root-enriched expression patterns were identified on the basis of their relative EST abundance in roots relative to other tissues.The large-scale analysis of relative EST frequency counts among a diverse collection of 23 different cDNA libraries from leaf, berry, and root tissues of wine grape exposed to a variety of abiotic stress conditions revealed distinct, tissue-specific expression patterns, previously unrecognized stress-induced genes, and many novel genes with root-enriched mRNA expression for improving our understanding of root biology and manipulation of rootstock traits in wine grape. mRNA abundance estimates based on EST library-enriched expression patterns showed only modest correlations between microarray and quantitative, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) methods highlighting the need for deep-sequencing expression profiling methods.The study of gene function in the wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.) has been fundamentally advanced by the availability of whole genome sequences of two Pinot Noir cultivars (clones 115 and PN40024) [1,2] as well as BAC-based physical maps [3]. To study wine grape gene functio
Phenology and ripening of Vitis vinifera L. grape varieties in S?o Joaquim, southern Brazil: a new South American wine growing region
Gris,Eliana F; Burin,Vívian M; Brighenti,Emilio; Vieira,Hamilton; Bordignon-Luiz,Marilde T;
Ciencia e investigación agraria , 2010, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-16202010000200007
Abstract: this study investigated the phenology and the ripening characteristics of vitis vinifera grapes cabernet franc, merlot, sangiovese and syrah in two consecutive vintages (2006 and 2007) in order to evaluate the adaptation of these recently cultivated varieties in s?o joaquim, santa catarina state, brazil. the phenological data observed, budburst, blooming, setting, véraison and harvest were monitorated. in order to monitor the ripening levels of ph, total acidity, total soluble solids, maturation índex, total monomeric anthocyanins, total polyphenols index and color index were analyzed.the results show that the phenological cycle from budburst to harvest occurred within a frame time of 191 and 219 days and the heat summation requirements varied between 1,161 and 1,340 gdd. the summing of the gdd results during the phenological cycle of the grapevines (budburst - harvest) characterizes s?o joaquim-sc as "region i" (< 1,389 gdd), that is, a "cold region" in terms of the winkler regions.the climatic parameters influenced the grapevine phenology and the grape ripening. the results showed that these different grape varieties had typical characteristics at maturity and indicated that they have potential for the production of fine wines, suggesting that s?o joaquim-sc is suitable for vitis vinifera grape growing.
Determination of Pectinesterase Activity in Grape Varieties (Vitis vinifera L.) During Vinification
M. Gerogiannaki-Christopoulou,M. Polissiou,P. Tarantilis,I. Provolisianou-Gerogiannaki,E. Anagnostaras
Journal of Food Technology , 2013,
Abstract: Twenty red and white grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.) were studied for pectin methyesterase activity during alcoholic fermentation of grape must. Methanol production in final wines from those grape samples was quantified. For the concentration of pectin methyl esterase activity a titrimetric method was used. Methanol concentration in final monovarietal wines quantified by Gas Chromatography Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID). Methanol levels ranged from 30.5-121.4 mg L 1 in white wines and 61-207 mg L 1 in red wines. The highest level was found in Agiorgitiko from Nemea. Methanol content of red wines increased with fermentation time because pectinesterase activity grows with the microorganism s activity of must. All the results show that methanol levels of monovarietal red and white wines are under the maximum acceptable limits of International Office of Vine and wine (O.I.V.) and do not represent a risk to consumer health.
Comparative expression profiling in grape (Vitis vinifera) berries derived from frequency analysis of ESTs and MPSS signatures
Alberto Iandolino, Kan Nobuta, Francisco da Silva, Douglas R Cook, Blake C Meyers
BMC Plant Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-8-53
Abstract: The number and relative abundance of transcripts from stage II grape berries was defined using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS). A total of 2,635,293 17-base and 2,259,286 20-base signatures were obtained, representing at least 30,737 and 26,878 distinct sequences. The average normalized abundance per signature was ~49 TPM (Transcripts Per Million). Comparisons of the MPSS signatures with available Vitis species' ESTs and a unigene set demonstrated that 6,430 distinct contigs and 2,190 singletons have a perfect match to at least one MPSS signature. Among the matched sequences, ESTs were identified from tissues other than berries or from berries at different developmental stages. Additional MPSS signatures not matching to known grape ESTs can extend our knowledge of the V. vinifera transcriptome, particularly when these data are used to assist in annotation of whole genome sequences from Vitis vinifera.The MPSS data presented here not only achieved a higher level of saturation than previous EST based analyses, but in doing so, expand the known set of transcripts of grape berries during the unique stage in development that immediately precedes the onset of ripening. The MPSS dataset also revealed evidence of antisense expression not previously reported in grapes but comparable to that reported in other plant species. Finally, we developed a novel web-based, public resource for utilization of the grape MPSS data [1].Grapes species (Vitis spp.) represent the most widely cultivated and economically important fruit crop in the world [2]. The use of grape berries includes the production of juice, fresh and dried fruit, and distilled liquor, although wine produced from cultivars of V. vinifera has the highest economic value of grape products. Grapevine berries are non-climacteric fruits with a characteristic double sigmoid growth curve. The initial phase of exponential berry growth (stage I) is followed by a lag phase (stage II), with growth resuming after the
Evaluating the Polyphenol Profile in Three Segregating Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Populations  [PDF]
Alberto Hernández-Jiménez,Rocío Gil-Mu?oz,Yolanda Ruiz-García,Jose María López-Roca,Adrián Martinez-Cutillas,Encarna Gómez-Plaza
Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/572896
Abstract: This paper explores the characteristics of the anthocyanin and flavonol composition and content in grapes from plants resulting from intraspecific crosses of Vitis vinifera varieties Monastrell × Cabernet Sauvignon, Monastrell × Syrah, and Monastrell × Barbera, in order to acquire information for future breeding programs. The anthocyanin and flavonol compositions of twenty-seven hybrids bearing red grapes and 15 hybrids bearing white grapes from Monastrell × Syrah, 32 red and 6 white from Monastrell × Cabernet Sauvignon, and 13 red from Monastrell × Barbera have been studied. Among the intraspecific crosses, plants with grapes presenting very high concentrations of anthocyanins and flavonols were found, indicating a transgressive segregation for this character, and this could lead to highly colored wines with an increased benefits for human health. As regards the qualitative composition of anthocyanins and flavonols, the hydroxylation pattern of the hybrids that also may influence wine color hue and stability presented intermediate values to those of the parentals, indicating that values higher than that showed by the best parental in this respect will be difficult to obtain. The results presented here can be helpful to acquire information for future breeding efforts, aimed at improving fruit quality through the effects of flavonoids. 1. Introduction Anthocyanins are responsible for the color of red grape varieties and the wines produced from them. Flavonols are also important because they participate both in stabilizing anthocyanins in young red wines through copigmentation and in increasing the health-related properties of wine [1, 2]. Grape anthocyanins and flavonols are final products arising from the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway (Figure 1). Vitis vinifera varieties are characterized by the presence of 3-O-glucosides of delphinidin, peonidin, petunidin, cyanidin, and malvidin, together with their acylated derivatives [3]. The 3-O-glucosides of kaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin are the major flavonols in grapes as first reported by Cheynier and Rigaud [4] and recently confirmed by Castillo-Mu?oz et al. [5], with quercetin glycosides usually being dominant [5], although a high presence of quercetin-3-O-glucuronide has also been observed in some varieties such as Petit Verdot [5, 6]. Figure 1: Flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. PAL: phenyl ammonia lyase, F3′H: flavonoid-3′-hydroxylase, F3′5′H: flavonoid-3′,5′-hydroxylase, UFGT: UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase, MT: methyl transferase, DFR: dihydroxyflavanol-4-reductase, ANS: anthocyanin
Effect of Rain-Shelter Cultivation of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet on the Phenolic Profile of Berry Skins and the Incidence of Grape Diseases  [PDF]
Jiang-Fei Meng,Peng-Fei Ning,Teng-Fei Xu,Zhen-Wen Zhang
Molecules , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/molecules18010381
Abstract: Rain-shelter cultivation is an effective cultural method to prevent rainfall damage during grape harvest and widely applied in the Chinese rainy regions. In this study we investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on grape diseases and phenolic composition in the skins of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet grape berries through the comparison with open-field cultivation at two vintages (2010 and 2011). The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation reduced the incidence of grape diseases significantly and delayed the maturation of Cabernet Gernischet fruits. With regards to most of the phenolic compounds identified in this study, their content in grape samples under rain-shelter cultivation was decreased compared to those under open-field cultivation. However, rain-shelter cultivation stimulated the accumulation of dihydroquercetin-3- O-rhamnoside in grape skins during grape maturation. These were related with micrometeorological alterations in vineyards by using plastic covering under rain-shelter cultivation. It suggests the rain-shelter cultivation makes possible the cultivation of “Cabernet Gernischet” grapes in an organic production system, for providing a decrease in the incidence of diseases and the dependence on chemical pesticides in the grape and wine industry.
Effects of rootstocks and irrigation levels on grape quality of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz
M Ozden, H Vardin, M Simsek, M Karaaslan
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2010,
Abstract: The influence of two rootstocks (SO4 and 1103P) on grape quality and berry chemical composition was studied in a factorial experiment, in field grown grapevines of cv. Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.), subjected to five irrigation levels [0% (T1), 25% (T2), 50% (T3), 75% (T4) and 100% (T5) of irrigation depth (IW, mm): Class A pan evaporimeter (CPE)]. Spectrophotometric analyses of total anthocyanins (TA), total phenolics (TP) and total antioxidant activity (AA) in grape extracts were performed. Also, total soluble solids (TSS), total acidity, pH, total sugar content, ash, juice yield and color index of red grapes (CIRG) of berry samples were determined. TA, TP, AA, TSS, total sugar content, ash, and CIRG values decreased together with increasing irrigation levels. On the contrary, T4 and T5 irrigation treatments increased total acidity, pH and juice yield of samples compared to the effects of T1, T2 and T3 irrigation treatments for both rootstocks. Moreover, T1 or T2 treatments caused an increase in TA, TP, AA, TSS, total sugar content, ash, and CIRG index values of grape samples in comparison to that of vines irrigated with T3, T4 and T5 levels. Grape quality response to irrigation levels was altered by rootstocks and quality of grapes harvested from vines grafted on SO4 was higher compared to those from 1103P under all irrigation treatments. Based on the findings, it was suggested that T2 irrigation level might be sufficient to guarantee Shiraz yield potential without significant loss in grape quality under the study conditions. Also, the results make it possible to recommend use of SO4 rootstock under non-limiting water conditions because of its positive on grape quality parameters, while 1103P might be better choice under water-limiting conditions.
Study on the Antioxidant Activity of Grape Stems (Vitis vinifera). A Preliminary Assessment of Crude Extracts  [PDF]
Antonia Llobera
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.34070
Abstract: The antioxidant activity of 80% ethanol and 70% acetone extracts of stems from red and white grapes (Vitis vinifera) used in wine industry were evaluated to determine their feasibility as natural antioxidants. The results showed that all grape stem extracts were rich in total polyphenolic compounds and flavanols and had clear antioxidant activities. The free radical-scavenging capacity of the extracts was determined using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) method. The extracts obtained from red grape stem present EC50 values of 0.14 g dm/g DPPH (acetone extract) and 0.20 g dm/g DPPH (ethanol extract) while the extracts obtained from white grape stem present EC50 values of 0.26 g dm/g DPPH (acetone extract) and 0.37 g dm/g DPPH (ethanol extract). There are significant correlations between the total content of polyphenols and the antioxidant activity (R2 = 0.9352) and between the flavanols content and the antioxidant activity (R2 = 0.9404) of the grape stem extracts obtained.
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