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Carbon and Nitrogen Content and Stock in No-Tillage and Crop-livestock Integration Systems in the Cerrado of Goias State, Brazil  [cached]
Arcangelo Loss,Marcos Gervasio Pereira,Adriano Perin,Lucia Helena Cunha dos Anjos
Journal of Agricultural Science , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/jas.v4n8p96
Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the total organic carbon (TOC) and nitrogen content, and quantify the TOC and nitrogen stocks in land use systems in the Cerrado region of Goiás State, Brazil. A crop-livestock integration system (CLIS) was evaluated - (corn+brachiaria/beans/cotton/soya beans) and a no-tillage system (NTS) - (sunflower/millet/soya beans/corn). The vegetal coverage of the natural Cerrado, adjacent to the NTS and CLIS, was considered as the original soil condition. Soil samples were collected at layer depths of 0.0-10.0 cm, 10.0-20.0 cm, 20.0-30.0 cm, 30.0-40.0 cm, 40.0-50.0 cm, 50.0-60.0 cm, 60.0-80.0 cm, and 80.0-100.0 cm, in a full random experimental design. The CLIS had higher contents of TOC and N than the NTS up to a level of 30.0 cm. Higher nitrogen stocks were observed in the Cerrado. In the CLIS, higher TOC contents were found up to 30.0 cm and nitrogen contents up to 20.0 cm. The sum of stocks up to a depth of 100 cm for TOC and 40 cm for nitrogen was greater in the CLIS when compared to the NTS. Under the CLIS, the stocks of TOC (0.0-30.0 cm) and nitrogen (0.0-20.0 cm) increased in relation to those of the NTS. The CLIS was more efficient in stock accumulation than the Cerrado for the sum of layers 0.0-40.0 cm and 0.0-60.0 cm.
Phytosociological Survey of Weeds in Areas of Crop-Livestock Integration  [PDF]
Karina Batista, Alessandra Aparecida Giacomini, Luciana Gerdes, Waldssimiler Teixeira de Mattos, Jo?o Batista de Andrade
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.58121
Abstract:

The dynamics of the weeds in the areas of crop-livestock integration is constantly changing depending on the various uses of the area. This study identified and quantified the floristic composition of weeds in areas of integration of maize for silage with Urochloa ruziziensis cv. Common at different densities of grass (0, 4 and 10 kg·ha-1) to grazing of beef cattle. The experimental design was completely randomized. A square of side0.5 m(0.25 m2area) was launched 24 times in each study area. The survey was conducted at the grain filling stage of maize. The specie contained in each frame were identified and counted. The phytosociological survey identified 9 families of weeds in areas assessed, with 7 families in every area of integrated cultivation maize with Urochloa ruziziensis at densities of 10 kg·

COVERING HERBICIDE AND POTASSIUM SUBDOSES UNDER CROP-LIVESTOCK INTEGRATION SYSTEM SUBDOSES DE HERBICIDA E POTáSSIO EM COBERTURA NO SISTEMA INTEGRA O LAVOURA-PECUáRIA
Paulo Roberto Oliveira Júnior,Ronan Gualberto,Paulo Sérgio Rabello Oliveira,Nídia Raquel Costa
Pesquisa Agropecuária Tropical , 2010, DOI: 10.5216/pat.v40i3.4717
Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate soybean and Brachiaria forage yields, under a crop-livestock integration system, in terms of increasing covering herbicide and potassium rates. The experiment was carried out in a randomized complete blocks design, in a split-split-plot scheme, with three replications. The treatments were: cultivars (CD 216 and VMax), for plots; herbicide rates (0 g ha-1, 0.24 g ha-1; and 0.96 g ha-1 of haloxyfop-methyl), for split-plots; and potassium doses (30 kg ha-1 and 60 kg ha-1 of K2O), for split-split-plots. VMax presented the highest number of pods per plant, while CD 216 presented the largest number of grains per pods. There was interaction among cultivars and herbicide doses, concerning the one hundred grains mass. For the split-plot, in comparison with VMax, CD 216 showed a higher one hundred grains mass rate. There were no significant levels of herbicide and K for soybean yield under crop-livestock integration. However, the highest CD 216 and VMax yield rates were obtained at 0 g i.a. ha-1 and 0.96 g i.a. ha-1 of the herbicide and 60 kg ha-1 and 30 kg ha-1 of K2O. The K doses which resulted in a higher dry biomass yield rate for Brachiaria brizantha were 30 kg ha-1 of K2
DESEMPENHOS TéCNICOS E ECON MICOS DA CONSORCIA O DE MILHO COM FORRAGEIRAS DOS GêNEROS Panicum E Brachiaria EM SISTEMA DE INTEGRA O LAVOURA-PECUáRIA TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE OF CORN INTERCROPPED WITH Panicum AND Brachiaria FORAGE IN CROP-LIVESTOCK INTEGRATION SYSTEM
Cristiano Magalh?es Pariz,Marcelo Andreotti,Maria Aparecida Anselmo Tarsitano,Antonio Fernando Bergamaschine
Pesquisa Agropecuária Tropical , 2009, DOI: 10.5216/pat.v39i4.5651
Abstract: O trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a produtividade de gr os e os resultados econ micos de modalidades do cultivo de milho com forrageiras dos gêneros Panicum e Brachiaria, na integra o lavoura-pecuária (ILP), sob sistema plantio direto (SPD). O experimento foi conduzido no ano agrícola de 2007/2008, no município de Selvíria, MS, em Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repeti es, sendo os tratamentos constituídos por oito modalidades de cultivo do milho consorciado, simultaneamente e por ocasi o da aduba o nitrogenada de cobertura com os capins Tanzania, Momba a, Marandu e Ruziziensis, além do seu cultivo sem consórcio. A análise dos custos operacionais foi baseada nos pre os de insumos e opera es e a receita bruta no pre o médio de venda do milho, no Estado de S o Paulo. O decréscimo dos valores da rela o custo/benefício e os melhores retornos econ micos, obtidos em fun o dos maiores índices de margem de contribui o, determinaram as modalidades de cultivo mais viáveis. Os capins Momba a e Marandu, consorciados, simultaneamente, ao milho, reduziram a produtividade de gr os, em rela o ao milho cultivado sem o consórcio. Com rela o aos benefícios técnico-econ micos, visando à utiliza o em sistemas de ILP, o consórcio mais recomendado é o de milho com capim Tanzania, principalmente no cultivo simultaneo. No entanto, resultados técnico-econ micos a longo prazo, com diferentes pre os e produtividades, devem ser avaliados. Palavras-chave: Margem de contribui o; produtividade de gr os; rela o custo/benefício; sistema plantio direto; Zea mays L. The objective of this research was to evaluate the technical and economic performance of methods for corn cropping with Brachiaria and Panicum genuses forages, in crop-livestock integration systems under no-tillage. The experiment was conducted in Selvíria, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, in a Distroferric Red Latosol (Oxisol), during the growing seasons of 2007 and 2008. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replications. The treatments consisted of eight methods for growing corn intercropped with Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania, Panicum maximum cv. Momba a, Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, and Brachiaria ruziziensis, sown simultaneously or at side dressing nitrogen fertilization, besides single grown corn. The operating cost
Soil macrofauna under integrated crop-livestock systems in a Brazilian Cerrado Ferralsol
March?o, Robélio Leandro;Lavelle, Patrick;Celini, Leonide;Balbino, Luiz Carlos;Vilela, Lourival;Becquer, Thierry;
Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-204X2009000800033
Abstract: the objective of this work was to assess the effects of integrated crop-livestock systems, associated with two tillage and two fertilization regimes, on the abundance and diversity of the soil macrofauna. four different management systems were studied: continuous pasture (mixed grass); continuous crop; two crop-livestock rotations (crop/pasture and pasture/crop); and native cerrado as a control. macrofauna was sampled using a modified tropical soil biology and fertility method, and all individuals were counted and identified at the morphospecies level for each plot. a total of 194 morphospecies were found, distributed among 30 groups, and the most representative in decreasing order of density were: isoptera, coleoptera larvae, formicidae, oligochaeta, coleoptera adult, diplopoda, hemiptera, diptera larvae, arachnida, chilopoda, lepidoptera, gasteropoda, blattodea and orthoptera. soil management systems and tillage regimes affected the structure of soil macrofauna, and integrated crop-livestock systems, associated with no-tillage, especially with grass/legume species associations, had more favorable conditions for the development of "soil engineers" compared with continuous pasture or arable crops. soil macrofauna density and diversity, assessed at morphospecies level, are effective data to measure the impact of land use in cerrado soils.
Fertilidade e teor de matéria organica do solo em sistemas de produ o com integra o lavoura e pecuária sob plantio direto Soil fertility and organic matter in integrated crop/livestock farming production systems under no-tillage  [cached]
Henrique P. dos Santos,Renato S. Fontaneli,Silvio T. Spera,Geizon Dreon
Revista Brasileira de Ciências Agrárias , 2011, DOI: 10.5039/agraria.v6i3a1266
Abstract: A evolu o da fertilidade do solo foi avaliada num Latossolo Vermelho distrófico típico, em Passo Fundo, RS, doze anos após o estabelecimento (1993, 2000, 2002 e 2005) de cinco sistemas de produ o integra o lavoura-pecuária: sistema I - trigo/soja, aveia branca/soja e ervilhaca/milho; sistema II - trigo/soja, aveia branca/soja e pastagem de aveia preta + ervilhaca/milho; sistema III - pastagens perenes de esta o fria (festuca + trevo branco + trevo vermelho + cornich o); sistema IV - pastagens perenes de esta o quente (pensacola + aveia preta + azevém + trevo branco + trevo vermelho + cornich o); e sistema V - alfafa para feno. As áreas sob os sistemas III, IV e V retornaram ao sistema I, a partir do ver o de 1996. Porém, no ver o de 2002, nos sistemas III, IV e V, o que era lavoura retornou a pastagem e o que era pastagem retornou a lavoura. Ocorreu uma acidifica o em todas as camadas pelos menores valores de pH e maior concentra o e satura o por Al, em compara o ao solo de 1998. O nível de matéria organica e os teores de P, de K e Al aumentaram entre os anos de 1998 e 2002, em todas as camadas amostradas, enquanto que, com os valores de pH, de Ca e de Mg, ocorreu o contrário. Soil fertility attributes were evaluated on a typical dystrophic Red Latosol (typic Haplorthox) located in Passo Fundo, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, twelve years after the establishment (1993, 2000, 2002 and 2005) of five integrated crop/livestock farming production systems: system I - wheat/soybean, white oat/soybean, and common vetch/corn; system II - wheat/soybean, white oat/soybean, and grazed black oat + grazed common vetch/corn; system III - perennial cool season pastures (fescue + white clover + red clover + birds foot trefoil); system IV - perennial warm season pastures (bahiagrass + black oat + rye grass + white clover + red clover + birds foot trefoil); and system V - alfalfa as hay crop. The plots under systems III, IV, and V returned to system I after the summer of 1996. However, in the summer of 2002, in the systems III, IV and V, what used to be crop returned to pasture and what used to be pasture returned to crop. An acidification process occurred in all layers by the lowest pH values and higher concentration and saturation by Al, in comparison to the soil in 1998. The organic matter level and the P, K and Al levels increased between 1998 to 2002, in all sampled layers, while the opposite occurred with pH, Ca and Mg contents.
Selectivity of Herbicides to Corn and braquiária grass Intercropping in a Crop-Livestock Integration System Seletividade de herbicidas à cultura do milho e ao capim-braquiária cultivadas no sistema de integra o lavoura-pecuária  [cached]
Fabiano André Petter,Leandro Pereira Pacheco,Sérgio de Oliveira Procópio,Alberto Cargnelutti Filho
Semina : Ciências Agrárias , 2011,
Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate the selectivity of different herbicides in the crop of corn and Brachiaria ruziziensis at crop-livestock integration. The experiment was carried out in Nova Xavantina, MT, between January and June of 2008, in soil classified like Rhodic Ferrasol. The trial was installed ar complete randomized block designing , with 11 treatments: lactofen (96 g ha-1); lactofen (192 g ha-1); carfentrazone - ethyl (8 g ha-1); carfentrazone - ethyl (12 g ha-1); flumioxazin (25 g ha-1); flumioxazin (50 g ha-1); lactofen + flumioxazin (96 + 25 g ha-1); lactofen + flumioxazin (192 + 50 g ha-1); nicosulfuron (8 g ha-1); nicosulfuron (40 g ha-1) and a check without herbicide. The treatments were applied at 30 days after the corn emergence. It were evaluated the effects of the treatments in the height, dry biomass and productivity of the corn and, also, in the dry biomass of the B. ruziziensis. The herbicides flumioxazin, lactofen and carfentrazone-ethyl didn′t present potential to be used in post-emergence in this integrated system, due to low selectivity for corn. Nicosulfuron atrate of 8 a g ha-1 provided corn yeld similar to the check with out herbicides, and a initial small suppression of B. ruziziensis; and, consequently, being the best herbicide to be used for weed management in the no-livestock system. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a seletividade de diferentes herbicidas à cultura do milho e a Brachiaria ruziziensis cultivadas no sistema de integra o lavoura-pecuária. O experimento foi conduzido no Município de Nova Xavantina – MT, no período de janeiro a junho de 2008, em solo classificado como Latossolo Vermelho distrófico. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repeti es, sendo avaliados 11 tratamentos: lactofen (96 g ha-1); lactofen (192 g ha-1); carfentrazone-ethyl (8 g ha-1); carfentrazone-ethyl (12 g ha-1); flumioxazin (25 g ha-1); flumioxazin (50 g ha-1); lactofen + flumioxazin (96 + 25 g ha-1); lactofen + flumioxazin (192 + 50 g ha-1); nicosulfuron (8 g ha-1); nicosulfuron (40 g ha-1) e testemunha sem herbicida. Os tratamentos foram aplicados aos 30 dias após a emergência da cultura do milho. Avaliaram-se os efeitos dos tratamentos sobre a altura de plantas, fitomassa seca e produtividade de gr os de milho e, também, sobre a fitomassa seca da B. ruziziensis. Os herbicidas flumioxazin, lactofen e carfentrazone-ethyl n o apresentaram potencial para utiliza o em pós-emergência nesse sistema integrado de cultivo, principalmente por apresentar baixa seletividade à cultura do mil
Crop residue grazing and tillage systems effects on soil physical properties and corn (Zea mays L.) performance
Agostini,M. de los A; Studdert,G.A; San Martino,S; Costa,J.L; Balbuena,R.H; Ressia,J.M; Mendivil,G.O; Lázaro,L;
Journal of soil science and plant nutrition , 2012, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-95162012000200007
Abstract: abstract crop-livestock systems under no till (nt) could negatively affect soil physical properties and crop performance, due to the additive effects of reduced soil cover and cattle trampling due to livestock grazing, and the absence of tillage. we evaluated the effects of four grazing strategies and of a shallow tillage (st) on soil physical properties and corn (zea mays l.) performance for a mollisol after 15 years under crop-livestock systems under nt in argentina. grazing strategies evaluated were: closure (c), one grazing (og), high stocking rate (hr) and farmer's management (fm), and the tillage systems were: nt and st. bulk density (bd), penetration resistance (pr), hydraulic conductivity (ks), plant population, surface root distribution, aboveground dry matter accumulation, aboveground total n (tn) accumulation and corn yield were evaluated. high stocking rate and fm increased rp. on the other hand, st decreased pr and bd and increased ks corn yield was higher under st than under nt, and under hr than under the other grazing strategies. total n accumulation was higher under hr than under the rest of grazing strategies. rational grazing management and use of tillage systems on resilient soils could have prevented soil physical properties be affected beyond critical thresholds.
Crop residue grazing and tillage systems effects on soil physical properties and corn (Zea mays L.) performance  [cached]
M. de los A Agostini,G.A Studdert,S San Martino,J.L Costa
Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition , 2012,
Abstract: Crop-livestock systems under no till (NT) could negatively affect soil physical properties and crop performance, due to the additive effects of reduced soil cover and cattle trampling due to livestock grazing, and the absence of tillage. We evaluated the effects of four grazing strategies and of a shallow tillage (ST) on soil physical properties and corn (Zea mays L.) performance for a mollisol after 15 years under crop-livestock systems under NT in Argentina. Grazing strategies evaluated were: closure (C), one grazing (OG), high stocking rate (HR) and farmer's management (FM), and the tillage systems were: NT and ST. Bulk density (BD), penetration resistance (PR), hydraulic conductivity (k s), plant population, surface root distribution, aboveground dry matter accumulation, aboveground total N (TN) accumulation and corn yield were evaluated. High stocking rate and FM increased RP. On the other hand, ST decreased PR and BD and increased k s Corn yield was higher under ST than under NT, and under HR than under the other grazing strategies. Total N accumulation was higher under HR than under the rest of grazing strategies. Rational grazing management and use of tillage systems on resilient soils could have prevented soil physical properties be affected beyond critical thresholds.
Agrega??o, carbono e nitrogênio em agregados do solo sob plantio direto com integra??o lavoura-pecuária
Loss, Arcangelo;Pereira, Marcos Gervasio;Giácomo, Simone Guimar?es;Perin, Adriano;Anjos, Lúcia Helena Cunha dos;
Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-204X2011001000022
Abstract: the objective of this work was to evaluate the stability of aggregates, light organic matter content (lom), distribution of total organic carbon (toc) and nitrogen (n) contents, and natural abundance of 13c and 15n in aggregates of a clayed oxisol under no-tillage (nt) with crop-livestock integration (cli), in comparison to an area under nt without cli, and an area of natural cerrado, in montividiu, go, brazil. soil samples were collected at the layers of 0-5 and 5-10 cm, in a completely randomized block design. the mass distribution of aggregates, mean weight diameter (mwd), geometric mean diameter (gmd), and lom were evaluated, and the levels of toc, n, δ13c and δ15n aggregates were quantified. the cerrado area had the highest values of mwd, gmd and lom. the nt-cli showed higher values of mwd, gmd, toc, n and lom in the layer of 5-10 cm than the area of nt without brachiaria. the nt-cli increased the indices of soil aggregation (0-5 and 5-10 cm), the levels of lom (5-10 cm), toc and n (0-5 cm) and the formation of water-stable aggregates (5-10 cm) in comparison to the nt without palisade grass.
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