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Effect of Sewage Sludge on Soil Physical Properties  [cached]
M. R. Bahremand,M. Afyuni,M. A. Hajabbassi,Y. Rezaeinejad
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2003,
Abstract: A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of sewage sludge and of time lapse after sludge application on soil physical properties. Four sewage sludge treatments (0, 25, 50, and 100 ton/ha) in a complete randomized block design with three replications were applied and mixed to a depth of 20 cm. Wheat was planted and soil physical properties were measured 23, 85, 148, and 221 days after sewage sludge application. Sewage sludge application significantly increased MWD, hydraulic conductivity, final infiltration rate, moisture percentage at 1/3 and 15 bars, and plant available soil moisture, while it significantly decreased soil bulk density. In general, the best results obtained with the 100 ton/ha sewage sludge treatment. Time lapse after sewage sludge application caused soil physical properties to approach the values of the control. However, even 221 days after sludge application, the 50 and 100 ton/ha treatments had significantly different values compared with the control treatment. The results in this research show that sewage sludge can help to improve soil physical conditions and this effect persists over long periods. This effect is specially important with plant available soil moisture and infiltration.
Effect of Polyacryl Sewage Sludge, Municipal Compost And Cow Manure on Soil Properties and Maize Yield  [cached]
J. Zamani Babgohari,M. Afyuni,A. H. Khoshgoftarmanesh,H. R. Eshghizadeh2
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2011,
Abstract: The management and application of organic wastes in agricultural lands decreases environmental risks and increases utilization of these matters. The objective of this research was to investigate and compare the effect of polyacryl factory sewage sludge (PSS), municipal compost (MC) and cow manure (CM) on soil properties and on yield and growth of maize (single cross 704, Zea mays L.). The treatments were control (without any organic waste) and application of PSS, MC, and CM at two rates (15 and 45 t ha-1). This research was done in the research farm of Isfahan University of Technology (Lavark-Najafabad). The experimental design was a randomized, complete block with three replications. Treatments were incorporated into the soil before the maize planting (on 23 June 2008) and soil sampling was performed after 132 days (Simultaneously with maize harvesting). Application of the organic wastes resulted in significant increase soil organic matter (SOM), total nitrogen (TN) and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) and significantly decreased bulk density. However, saturated hydraulic conductivity was decreased by application of PSS. Application of 15 and 45 t ha-1 of PSS reduced Ks more than 14% and 42%, respectively, compared with control; however, the reduction was significant only in the plots which received 45 t ha-1 of PSS compared with control. The results of plant yield and growth showed that leaf area index (LAI), plant length, biological yield, 1000 seed weight and seed yield increase due to the application of organic wastes.
Impact of Sewage Sludge as Organic Manure on Some Soil Properties, Growth, Yield and Nutrient Contents of Cucumber Crop  [PDF]
A.H.A. Hussein
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: The present study was conducted in two field experiments with two soil types (sandy and calcareous soils) under greenhouse conditions at the Agricultural and Veterinary Training and Research Station of KFU, Al-Hassa area. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of different rates of sludge on some soil properties, growth, yield and nutrients status of leaves and fruits of cucumber plant. The experimental soils have sandy and sandy loam textures. All experimental plots (6 m2 area) cultivated with cucumber. Soil application of sewage sludge, at rates of 0 (control, with no sewage sludge), 25, 50, 75, 100 and 125 t ha-1 was used in the present study. Sewage sludge was mixed with top 30 cm surface layer of each plot, two month before planting of cucumber. The experiments were conducted in a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. The experimental plots received the same agricultural practices as recommended. The obtained results revealed that application of sewage sludge significantly altered the chemical properties of soil. Soil Electrical Conductivity (EC), soluble cations (calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium), soluble anions (chloride and sulphate), available phosphorous and micronutrients (iron, manganese, copper and zinc) and heavy metals (cadmium, cobalt, lead and nickel) were increased in sandy and calcareous soils with increasing sewage sludge application rate. While, the soil reaction (pH) and HCO3ˉ contents were decreased as a result of sludge application. Also, application of sewage sludge improved physical properties of sandy and calcareous soils. It decreased the soil bulk density and increased saturation water content, porosity and organic matter content. Application of sewage sludge improved leaves and fruit contents of macro- and microelements of cucumber plant grown in sandy and calcareous soils. Also, the number of fruits and yield of cucumber were increased with increasing the rates of sewage sludge application. The highest level of application of sludge has a highest effect on the yield of cucumber plants. Generally, application of sewage sludge by mixing it with top 30 cm soil layer was found to be more effective in improving soil physical, chemical and fertility conditions. Moreover, using of sewage sludge as organic manure is considered as a source of nutrients that required for plant which led to increase the growth and the yield of cucumber crop.
The Cumulative Effects of Sewage Sludge Compost on Raphanus sativus L: Growth and Soil Properties  [PDF]
Vanessa N. Lima, Ricardo V. Trótski O. Silva, Patrícia Nunes, Paulo H. da Silva, Kyriale Morant, Rosileide F. S. Andrade, Aline E. Nascimento, Galba M. Campos-Takaki, Arminda Saconi Messias
Green and Sustainable Chemistry (GSC) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/gsc.2016.61001
Abstract: The main goal of this research study was to establish the physicochemical characteristics of sewage sludge, and the nutrients needed to enhance the properties of soil with a view to exploiting were potential for agriculture. The example used was the cultivation of radish (Raphanus sativus). The findings are intended as a contribution towards making agriculture sustainable. This study was carried out to assess the response of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) to doses of sewage sludge applied in medium texture soils, and the socioeconomic contributions that such cultivation of radish would make. Levels of 0.25 and 75 ton/ha of sewage sludge plus the equivalent dose of 25 ton/ha of sewage sludge vermin compost by California Red were used after making a randomized experimental design with three replicates. 30 days after sowing radish seeds, the following data were collected: the number of leaves per plant (NLP); plant height (PH in cm); root diameter (RD) and tubercle production (TP ton/ha). In addition, the pH, EC-electric conductivity (EC), and soil organic matter (SOM) were determined. Statistical analysis showed that 25 and 50 tons/ha gave the best results for the parameters assessed. The estimated increase in family mean income from selling radish crops fertilized with sewage sludge is around 17%.
Physicochemical Properties of Sewage Sludge from Gaza  [PDF]
Ibrahim Y. El-Nahhal, Husam Al-Najar, Yasser El-Nahhal
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2014.56053

This study characterized the physicochemical properties of sewage sludge collected from Gaza wastewater treatment plant. Sludge samples were collected from the drying beds, air-dried, sieved through 2 mm and stored in plastic bags at room temperature. Sludge density, particle size distribution, water holding capacity, void volume, pH, EC, total organic carbon and hydrophobicity were determined. Results showed the bulk density is about 1.18 g/cm3 whereas the real density is 2.12 g/cm3 and void volume is 50%; Particle size distribution showed that the major size of sludge is sand-like size (630 - 200 μm) and the minor size is silt-like size (200 - 20 μm) and clay-like size is less than 20 μm. Sludge has an acidic pH reaction (6.78 ± 0.02) with an electric conductivity equal to (2.49 ± 0.04) mS?cm-1. The hydrophobicity of sludge is very high, water drop penetration time (WDPT) is 114.77 ± 18.78 sec with a radius of 0.44 ± 0.08 cm. In the way around, oil drop penetration time (ODPT) of sludge is 5.05 ± 1.28 sec with a radius of 1.25 ± 0.14 cm. The WDPT/ODPM ration has very high value 22.73 indicating extreme hydrophobicity. High value of hydrophobicity may reduce water filtration in soil when sludge applied for agriculture. These results suggest that sludge application to soil may change the physicochemical properties of soil.

Characteristics of sewage sludge and distribution of heavy metal in plants with amendment of sewage sludge
DAI Jia-yin,CHEN Ling,ZHAO Jian-fu,MA Na,
DAI Jia-yin
,CHEN Ling,ZHAO Jian-fu,MA Na

环境科学学报(英文版) , 2006,
Abstract: In order to better understand land application of sewage sludge, the characterization of heavy metals and organic pollutants were investigated in three different sewage sludges in Shanghai City, China. It was found that the total concentrations of Cd in all of sewage sludge and total concentrations of Zn in Jinshan sewage sludge, as well as those of Zn, Cu, and Ni in Taopu sludge are higher than Chinese regulation limit of pollutants for sludge to be used in agriculture. Leachability of Hg in all of studied samples and that of Cd in Taopu sewage sludge exceed the limit values of waste solid extraction standard in China legislation. Based on the characteristics for three kinds of sewage sludge, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of soil amended with Quyang sewage sludge on the accumulation of heavy metal by Begonia semperflorens-hybr; Ophiopogon japonicus (L.F.) Ker-Gaw; Loropetalum chindense-var. rubrum; Dendranthema morifolium; Viola tricolor; Antirrhinum majus; Buxus radicans Sieb; Viburnum macrocephalum; Osmanthus fragrans Lour; Cinnamomum camphora siebold and Ligustrum lucidum ait. Results showed that 8 species of plant survived in the amended soil, and moreover they flourished as well as those cultivated in the control soil. The heavy metal concentration in plants varied with species, As, Pb, Cd and Cr concentration being the highest in the four herbaceous species studied, particularly in the roots of D. morifolium. These plants, however, did not show accumulator of As, Pb, Cd and Cr. The highest concentration of Ni and Hg was found in the roots of D. morifolium, followed by the leaves of B. semperflorens-hybr. Levels of Zn and Cu were much higher in D. morifolium than in the other plant species. D. morifolium accumulated Ni, Hg, Cu and Zn, which may contribute to the decrease of heavy metal contents in the amended soil. Treatment with sewage sludge did not significantly affect the uptake of heavy metals by the L. chindense-var. rubrum, however, it significantly affected the uptake of heavy metals by D. morifolium.
Evaluation of the Pozzolanic Activity of Sewage Sludge Ash  [PDF]
M. A. Tantawy,A. M. El-Roudi,Elham M. Abdalla,M. A. Abdelzaher
ISRN Chemical Engineering , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/487037
Abstract: Raw sewage sludge was characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM, and TGA techniques and incinerated in temperature range 650–950°C for 2?h. The effect of incineration temperature on the microstructure and pozzolanic activity of the resultant ash was investigated by techniques mentioned above as well as Chapelle test. It was concluded that incineration of sewage sludge affects the microstructure and pozzolanic activity of the resultant ash. During incineration at temperatures lower than 800°C, amorphous silica captures fixed carbon resulting from incomplete combustion conditions whereas at higher temperatures crystallization of amorphous silica was enhanced. Hydration products formed from hydrothermal treatment of silica fume with lime is amorphous whereas that of sewage sludge ash is fibrous. Hence, incineration of sewage sludge ash must be optimized at 800°C to preserve the pozzolanic activity of the resultant ash. 1. Introduction Sewage is the collection of wastewater effluents from domestic, hospital, commercial, industrial establishments, and rain water. The objective of sewage treatment is to produce treated sewage water and sewage sludge suitable for safe discharge into the environment or reuse [1]. The most common treatment options for sewage sludge include anaerobic digestion, aerobic digestion, and composting. Choice of the treatment method depends on the amount of sludge and other site-specific conditions [2]. Sewage sludge tends to accumulate heavy metals existing in the wastewater. The composition of sewage sludge and its content of heavy metals vary widely depending on the sludge origins and treatment options [3]. In past decades, sewage sludge was primarily disposed to landfills and seawaters [4]. Space limitations on existing landfills and increasing environmental concerns such as groundwater pollution from landfill leachate, odor emission and soil contamination have prompted the investigation of alternative disposal routes [5]. Sewage sludge has been used in agriculture as fertilizer and soil amendment [6]. However heavy metals such as Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd, Pb, Hg, and Cr are principal elements restricting the use of sludge for agricultural purposes [3]. The solidification/stabilization of sewage sludge in cementitious matrix has been evaluated [7]. Sewage sludge adversely affects durability of concrete, mainly due to the organic material which retards setting and heavy metals which interfere with the hardening reactions [8]. Hence, sewage sludge addition in concrete was limited to 10?wt.% and the solidified concrete was recommended for use in certain
Drug-Resistant Microorganisms in Soils Fertilized with Sewage Sludge
Ewa Stańczyk-Mazanek , Teresa Nalewajek , Magdalena Zabochnicka
Archives of Environmental Protection , 2012, DOI: 10.2478/v10265-012-0008-6
Abstract: One of the methods of sewage sludge disposal, which is based on its fertilizing properties, is its use in nature, e.g. in farming (if all the permissible standards are met). However, the sludge used for soil fertilization might also contain heavy metals, pathogenic microorganisms, thus causing contamination in soil foundation and deterioration of the conditions for development of indigenous organisms. Particular threat is posed by the existence of drug-resistant microorganisms in sewage sludge. This problem has not been researched in detail yet. The authors of the present study aimed to determine qualitative changes in drug-resistant microorganisms in sandy soil fertilized with selected sewage sludge. Sewage sludge after different types of drying process (natural and solar) was added to the degraded sandy soil. The effect of the methods of sewage sludge drying on concentration of drug-resistant microorganisms in soil fertilized with the sludge was analysed. The study demonstrated that sewage sludge dried naturally in drying beds pose threat to soil environment and, potentially, to people and animals which have contact with fertilized soils. In sandy soils fertilized with these types of sewage sludge, pathogenic forms which exhibit resistance to first-line antibiotics can be found.
Study of heavy metal in sewage sludge and in Chinese cabbage grown in soil amended with sewage sludge
P Wang, S Zhang, C Wang, J Hou, P Guo, Z Lin
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: The study was performed to investigate the heavy metal content and availability for crops in sewage sludge and its accumulation in Chinese cabbage grown in sewage sludge amended soil. We determined the total and chemical fraction of As, Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mg and Mn in sewage sludge and the total content of these metals in Chinese cabbage grown in soil amended with sewage sludge. Total content of all metals (except for As) was below the top limits for land application of sewage sludge in China. The majority of As, Cd, Pb, Zn and Fe was present in the residual fraction (70 – 95%) of the total concentration, and 21% of Cd, 59% of Cr and 56% of Cu were present in oxidizable fraction in sewage sludge. Most of the content of metals increased in Chinese cabbage with the increase in sludge amendments ratio, and the content of heavy metal As, Cd, Cr and Zn exceeded the top limits of metals content in China. Our results suggested that application of sewage sludge could enhance the output of vegetable while the risk of heavy metal should be of concern.
Effects of sewage sludge and sewage sludge compost amendment on soil properties and Zea mays L. plants (heavy metals, quality and productivity)
VACA, Rocío;LUGO, Jorge;MARTíNEZ, Ricardo;ESTELLER, María V.;ZAVALETA, Hilda;
Revista internacional de contaminación ambiental , 2011,
Abstract: the use of organic wastes in agriculture can improve the soil's productive capacity, and physical and chemical characteristics. this study evaluated the effects of sewage sludge, sewage sludge compost and inorganic fertilizer applications on nickel, copper and zinc contents in soil and corn grains (zea mays l); maize productivity, and grain nutritional quality. sewage sludge and sewage sludge compost at 18 mg ha-1 and a mineral fertilizer (n-p-k) with a formulation of 150-75-30 were applied. significant differences were observed in organic matter, phosphorus and zinc content between sewage sludge-soil and compost-soil, and inorganic fertilizer-soil (p ≤ 0.05). copper concentration was significantly high in compost-soil (p ≤ 0.05). productivity in compost-soil and sewage sludge-soil mixtures was higher than in inorganic fertilizer-soil. grain quality, measured by relative percentage of starch, total nitrogen, protein, acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber were adequate for human consumption. application of sewage sludge or compost did not increase heavy metal concentrations in grain with respect to inorganic fertilizer-soil.
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