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Bitter Leaf (Vernonia amygdalina) as a Feed Additive in Broiler Diets
A.A. Mohammed,A.S. Zakariya`u
Research Journal of Animal Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjnasci.2012.38.41
Abstract: The research was carried out to determine the growth performance of 84 day old Hubbard broiler chicks on various levels of supplemental Vernonia Amygdalina (VA). Four treatments were used including the control which had 0 g VA, treatments two, three and four had 300, 600 and 900 g VA, respectively as an additive in both the starter and finisher diets. The results of the growth performance showed that there were no differences (p>0.05) among all the growth performance parameters analyzed. Broilers on V300 and V900 showed increased feed intake and feed conversion ratio, respectively. There was decreased mortality in broilers fed V600 diet.
Evaluation of Some Natural Feed Additive in Growing Chicks Diets  [PDF]
I.M. Abaza,M.A. Shehata,M.S. Shoieb,I.I. Hassan
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2008,
Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect adding of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniform, black seed oil versus, virginamycin and zinc bacitracin to growing chick's diets at level of 0.1%, for each. Growth performance, digestibility, carcass treats, meat composition, serum blood constituents and economical efficiency of growing chicks were studied. A total of 180 unsexed one-day old chicks, were divided into 6 treatments of 30 chicks each in three replicates. The experiment was terminated when chicks were 12 weeks of age. The results showed that, addition of black seed oil, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniform in the experimental diets increased body weight, body weight gain. Chicks fed diets supplemented with black seed oil and virginamycin were significantly lower in their feed consumption. While, Chicks fed diet supplemented with saccharomyces cerevisiae consumed the highest amount of feed. The best feed conversion ratio was recorded with chicks fed diets contained black seed oil or virginamycin. All the treatments insignificantly affected dressing, giblets percentages, composition of breast Meats and blood serum constituents as compared with those of the control. Chicks fed diets supplemented with either black seed oil, virginamycin or Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniform had significantly decreased abdominal fat percentages. The Addition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, black seed oil and Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniform significantly improved digestibility coefficient of dray matter and crude protein. The best relative economical efficiency was recorded by black seed oil flowed by virginamycin addition. It was concluded that black seed oil, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniform and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, could serve in growing chicks diets. However, further research is required to better understand the role of natural feed additives in poultry nutrition and their implications in human health.
Binding Parameters of Alkaloids Berberine and Sanguinarine with DNA  [PDF]
V. G. Gumenyuk,N. V. Bashmakova,S. Yu. Kutovyy,V. M. Yashchuk,L. A. Zaika
Quantitative Biology , 2012,
Abstract: We study the interaction of berberine and sanguinarine (plant alkaloids) with DNA in aqueous solutions, by using optical spectroscopy methods (absorption and fluorescence). The dependencies of alkaloid spectral characteristics on the concentration ratio N/c between the DNA base pairs and alkaloid molecules in the solutions are considered, and the manifestations of the alkaloid-DNA binding are revealed. The character of binding is found to depend on N/c. The parameters of the binding of berberine and sanguinarine with DNA are determined, by using the modified Scatchard and McGhee-von Hippel equations
Piperine as a phytogenic additive in broiler diets
Cardoso, Ver?nica da Silva;Lima, Cristina Amorim Ribeiro de;Lima, Marco Edílson Freire de;Dorneles, Luis Eduardo Gomes;Danelli, Maria das Gra?as Miranda;
Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-204X2012000400003
Abstract: the objective of this work was to determine the effect of piperine as a phytogenic additive in chicken broiler diet. seven?day?old male chicks were randomly allocated in four experimental treatments (n = 24), with four replicates (n = 6). the piperine was added to diets at concentrations of 0, 60, 120, and 180 mg kg?1 for 35 consecutive days. the following were evaluated: biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters; performance and carcass yield. histomorphometric analyses were also carried out. the addition of 120 and 180 mg kg?1 of piperine did not alter broiler body weight and feed conversion, whereas 60 mg kg?1 of piperine interfered positively in both parameters from 36 to 42 days of age and significantly increased the absorption surface of the duodenum and the ileum. no macroscopic alteration in organ size and color was observed in the broilers fed diets with the evaluated concentrations of piperine. the supplementation of 120 and 180 mg kg?1 of piperine is toxic to liver tissue and reduces the absorption surface of the jejune. the diet supplemented with 60 mg kg?1 of piperine is safe.
Use of black pepper (Piper nigrum) as feed additive in broilers diet
Galib A. M. Al-Kassie,,Mamdooh A. M. Al-Nasrawi,,Saba J. Ajeena
Research Opinions in Animal & Veterinary Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the performance of broilers fed diets with black pepper (Piper nigrum). A total of 250 (Rose 308) day old chicks were used in this study. Five levels of black pepper at the rate of 0.00%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75% and 1% were incorporated into the basal diet of broilers for six weeks. The Results revealed that the inclusion of black pepper at the levels of 0.50%, 0.75% and 1% in the diets improved body weight gain, feed intake and conversion ratio. At the same time the black pepper of 0.50 %, 0.75% and 1% depressed the cholesterol, Hb, RBC and H/L ratio concentration. It was concluded that the use of black pepper as feed additive at 0.50%, 0.75% and 1% enhanced the overall performance of broiler chicks.
Scientific Opinion on Ergot alkaloids in food and feed  [PDF]
EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain
EFSA Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.2903/j.efsa.2012.2798
Abstract: The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) was asked by the European Commission to deliver a scientific opinion on ergot alkaloids (EAs) in food and feed. EAs are produced by several members within the fungal orders of Hypocreales and Eurotiales. In Europe, Claviceps purpurea is the most widespread Claviceps species within the Hypocreales. A total of 20 558 analytical results for EAs in 1 716 food, 496 feed and 67 unprocessed grain samples were considered in this opinion. Based on the EAs identified in sclerotia of C. purpurea, and recent literature data, the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel) based its risk assessment on the main C. purpurea EAs, namely ergometrine, ergotamine, ergosine, ergocristine, ergocryptine (which is a mixture of α- and β- isomers), ergocornine, and the corresponding –inine epimers. The CONTAM Panel performed estimates of both chronic and acute exposure for various age groups across European countries. A BMDL10 of 0.33 mg/kg b.w. per day was calculated for the incidence of tail muscular atrophy in a 13-week rat feeding study of ergotamine. This effect was considered representative of the vasoconstrictive effects of EAs and provided a suitable reference point for establishment of a group acute reference dose of 1 μg/kg body weight (b.w.) and a group tolerable daily intake of 0.6 μg/kg b.w. per day. The Panel concluded that whilst the available data do not indicate a concern for any population subgroup, the dietary exposure estimates relate to a limited number of food groups and a possible unknown contribution from other foods cannot be discounted. Estimates of exposure for livestock based on example diets and levels of EAs in cereal grains reported suggest that under normal conditions the risk of toxicosis is low.
Supplementation of Feed Grade Sodium Bisulfate in Broiler Diets Improves Feed Efficiency  [PDF]
C.A. Ruiz- Feria,E. Larrison,M. Davis,M. Farnell
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2011,
Abstract: The effects of Sodium Bisulfate (SB) supplementation on growth, intestinal integrity, blood gas chemistry and litter microbiology of broiler chickens were evaluated. Birds were fed a corn-soybean meal diet meeting all of the NRC (1994) requirements. In Exp. 1 birds were fed diets supplemented with 0 (control diet, CTL), 0.25, 0.5, or 0.75% (w/w) of feed-grade SB (SB25, SB50 and SB75, respectively); in Exp. 2 and 3 only the CTL, SB25 and SB75 diets were evaluated. In Exp. 4 the chicks (n = 920) were placed in 20 pens and fed the CTL diet, or the SB25 diet offered during the first 21, 35, or 49 d (21D, 35D and 49D, respectively); the CTL diet was offered until the end of experiment (d 49) for treatments 21D and 35D. The data was analyzed as a two way ANOVA (diet and gender as main effects). In Exp. 1 birds fed diets with SB had lower FC than birds fed the CTL diet, but BW was not different among treatments. In Exp. 2 females fed the SB25 diet were heavier (p<0.05) at d 21 than females fed the CTL or the SB75 diet; the FC was similar among groups. In Exp. 3 chickens fed the SB25 or SB75 diets were consistently heavier and had a lower FC (p<0.05) than birds fed the CTL diet. In Exp. 4 birds fed the SB25 diet had lower BW than birds fed the CTL diet; however birds in the 35D or 49D treatments had a better FC than birds fed the CTL diet. The litter of birds fed the SB25 diet had lower levels of Salmonella at wk 4 and 6 in Experiment 3 and at wk 4 in Exp. 4. Neither the duodenum villus height nor the blood gas composition was affected by the dietary treatments. Our results show that SB supplementation improves productive performance and reduces the environmental levels of Salmonella, with variable efficacy, perhaps due to seasonal conditions.
Comparative Efficacy of Different Feed Additive Anticoccidials in Broilers  [PDF]
Mohsin Ali Ashraf,Talat Naseer Pasha,Nisar Ahmed Mian,Ahmed Hashmi
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2002,
Abstract: The study was designed to compare the efficacy of different feed additive anticoccidials and coccidiosis vaccines. A total of 240 day-old-broiler chicks were purchased and raised for 42 days under good husbandry and hygienic conditions. The birds were randomly divided into eight groups i.e. A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H comprising of 30 birds each. Group A was uninfected unmedicated control while group B was infected unmedicated control. Groups C, D, E and F were given commercial feed having anticoccidials Coxistac, Sacox, Elancoban and Avatec respectively. Groups G and H were given unmedicated feed and were vaccinated at day 3 and 10. All the groups except that of group A were given primary and challenge doses of infection on day 22nd and 35th. The oocysts count was done on 5th, 6th and 7th day after each infection. The feed consumption and weight gain were recorded weekly. Record of mortality was kept and postmortem of dead birds was also performed. The results revealed that Sacox (salinomycin sodium) as anti-coccidial in feed was significantly better (P < 0.05) than all the treatments in terms of weight gain, feed efficiency (FCR), oocyst count and reduction in mortality. The results of other anticoccidials were not satisfactory, while both the vaccinated groups i.e. group G and H performed well in terms of oocyst count and decrease in mortality but their weight gain and feed efficiency were not good.
The Influence of Supplemental Multi-enzyme Feed Additive on the Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality Traits of Broiler Chickens  [PDF]
Hana A.H. Zakaria,Mohammad A.R. Jalal,Majdi A. Abu Ishmais
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2010,
Abstract: A study was conducted to investigate the effect of adding a commercial multienzyme feed additive (Tomoko, Biogenkoji Research Institute, Japan) on the performance of broilers. Four isoenergetic and isontirogenous diets consisting of control diet without enzyme (Con) and three test diets supplemented with Tomoko at 250 (T250), 500 (T500) and 750 (T750) g/tonne of feed were used for starter, grower and finisher phases. Each diet was offered to 10 replicates of 40 one-day-old straight-run Lohmann broiler chicks (n = 1600) in a randomized complete block design (10 blocks of 4 diets each). Data was analyzed using mixed procedure of SAS (repeated measures analysis) for a randomized complete block design, with level of significance set at p = 0.05. Enzyme used in the study was authenticated by the supplier to have minimum level of acidic protease (10,000 U/g), alpha-amylase (40 U/g), pectinase (30 U/g), phytase (10 U/g), glucoamylase (5 U/g) and cellulase (4 U/g). Enzyme supplementation had no significant effect on Feed Intake (FI) at 21 d, while at 42 d birds fed T250 and Con diets significantly consumed more feed than T500 and/or T750. No significant differences were observed for Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR). Body Weight (BW) and Body Weight Gain (BWG) were significantly higher (p<0.05) for birds fed Con diet at 42 d. Carcass characteristics showed no significant effects on whole carcass weight and/or dressing percent and weight and percent of breast, thighs and wings. Enzyme supplemented diets significantly (p<0.05) increased liver percent in contrast to Con diet, while no significant differences were reported for heart, gizzard and abdominal fat pad. The addition of enzyme did not significantly impact meat quality traits (pH, cooking loss, water holding capacity, shear force and colour attributes). Chemical analysis showed significantly (p<0.05) higher Dry Matter (DM) and ash percent for breast meat and significantly (p<0.05) higher DM, ash and Crude Protein (CP) percent for thigh meat, in birds fed Con diet. In conclusion, enzyme supplementation elicited few responses in birds when supplemented at three levels in contrast to a normal corn-soybean diet.
Zeolite as a Feed Additive to Reduce Salmonella and Improve Production Performance in Broilers  [PDF]
Afaf Y. Al-Nasser,Sameer F. Al-Zenki,Abdulameer E. Al-Saffar,Faten K. Abdullah
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2011,
Abstract: Zeolite (clinopitolites) was added to broiler feed at concentrations of 1.0%, 1.5% or 2.0% and was evaluated for its effectiveness to reduce Salmonella in broilers and its effects on production performance. These experiments were conducted both in the summer and winter seasons. It was found that adding zeolite in the broiler diet significantly (p<0.05) reduced Salmonella levels, as compared to the control, on the chicken body, in the ceca and on the chicken carcass, both in the winter and summer seasons. In addition, it was found that zeolite treatments had a positive effect on the production parameters that were measured, but only in the winter season. This study showed the significance of using zeolite, as a feed additive for broilers, as part of a comprehensive program to control Salmonella at the broiler farm.
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