Article citations

    Bigg, E.K. (1984) Particles in the Upper Atmosphere. Fundamental Studies and the Future of Science. University College Cardiff Press, Cardiff.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Nature’s Particulate Matter with and without Charge and Travelling
  • AUTHORS: Bob W. N. J. Ursem
  • KEYWORDS: Natural Dispersion, Electrical Charge, Stokes, Newton
  • JOURNAL NAME: Open Journal of Biophysics DOI: 10.4236/ojbiphy.2016.63008 Jul 09, 2016
  • ABSTRACT: Natures and anthropogenic particulates can travel long distances on wind flows, but negative electrical charge due to friction can increase dispersion. Models for calculations of distance travelling of biological particulate matter with and without charge are never been calculated in a theoretical approach. Nor do we realize the fact that we can calculate actual distances if we take the charge on particles in account. Particles that travel through the air encounter friction. Friction can be described in two ways; either in a smooth constant way through the air with its viscous forces, or in a turbulent chaotic eddies and vortices and other flow instabilities. In case of only viscous forces are to be concerned, it can be described as a lower Reynolds number than one, while in all other setting it always must be described by Reynolds numbers larger than or equal to one. This article describes the calculated effects on particles, either in a low Reynolds number and thus as a Navier-Stokes equation or Stokes’ Law or, in case of non-laminar and complex forces in an equal or higher Reynolds number according to the third Law of Newton. In addition some striking examples of particle travelling are given with evidence of natural particulate matter long distance dispersion.