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has been cited by the following article:
- TITLE: Nutrition and Sarcopenia: A Review of the Evidence and Implications for Preventive Strategies
- AUTHORS: Sian Robinson,Cyrus Cooper,Avan Aihie Sayer
JOURNAL NAME: Journal of Aging Research
Sep 16, 2014
- ABSTRACT: Prevention of age-related losses in muscle mass and strength is key to protecting physical capability in older age and enabling independent living. To develop preventive strategies, a better understanding is needed of the lifestyle factors that influence sarcopenia and the mechanisms involved. Existing evidence indicates the potential importance of diets of adequate quality, to ensure sufficient intakes of protein, vitamin D, and antioxidant nutrients. Although much of this evidence is observational, the prevalence of low nutrient intakes and poor status among older adults make this a current concern. However, as muscle mass and strength in later life are a reflection of both the rate of muscle loss and the peak attained in early life, efforts to prevent sarcopenia also need to consider diet across the lifecourse and the potential effectiveness of early interventions. Optimising diet and nutrition throughout life may be key to preventing sarcopenia and promoting physical capability in older age. 1. Introduction Sarcopenia is the loss of muscle mass and strength that occurs with advancing age . Although definitions (and therefore estimates of prevalence) vary, it is widely recognised as a common condition among older adults, and one that is associated with huge personal and financial costs [1, 2]. Declining muscle mass and strength are expected components of ageing. However, the rate of decline differs across the population [1, 3], suggesting that modifiable behavioural factors such as diet and lifestyle may be important influences on muscle function in older age. This paper considers the evidence that links diet to muscle mass and strength, and implications for strategies to prevent or delay sarcopenia in older age. 2. Nutrition and Ageing Food intake falls by around 25% between 40 and 70 years of age . In comparison with younger ages, older adults eat more slowly, they are less hungry and thirsty, consume smaller meals, and they snack less . The mechanisms for the “anorexia of ageing” are not fully understood but there may be a range of physiological, psychological, and social factors that influence appetite and food consumption, including loss of taste and olfaction, increased sensitivity to the satiating effects of meals, chewing difficulties, and impaired gut function [4, 5]. The negative consequences of these changes are compounded by the effects of functional impairments that impact on the ability to access and prepare food, psychological problems such as depression and dementia, as well as the social effects of living and eating alone.