Article citations

    E. H. Warren III and M. C. Liberman, “Effects of contralateral sound on auditory-nerve responses. I. Contributions of cochlear efferents,” Hearing Research, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 89–104, 1989.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Contralateral Ear Occlusion for Improving the Reliability of Otoacoustic Emission Screening Tests
  • AUTHORS: Emily Papsin,Adrienne L. Harrison,Mattia Carraro,Robert V. Harrison
  • JOURNAL NAME: International Journal of Otolaryngology DOI: 10.1155/2014/248187 Sep 16, 2014
  • ABSTRACT: Newborn hearing screening is an established healthcare standard in many countries and testing is feasible using otoacoustic emission (OAE) recording. It is well documented that OAEs can be suppressed by acoustic stimulation of the ear contralateral to the test ear. In clinical otoacoustic emission testing carried out in a sound attenuating booth, ambient noise levels are low such that the efferent system is not activated. However in newborn hearing screening, OAEs are often recorded in hospital or clinic environments, where ambient noise levels can be 60–70?dB SPL. Thus, results in the test ear can be influenced by ambient noise stimulating the opposite ear. Surprisingly, in hearing screening protocols there are no recommendations for avoiding contralateral suppression, that is, protecting the opposite ear from noise by blocking the ear canal. In the present study we have compared transient evoked and distortion product OAEs measured with and without contralateral ear plugging, in environmental settings with ambient noise levels <25?dB SPL, 45?dB SPL, and 55?dB SPL. We found out that without contralateral ear occlusion, ambient noise levels above 55?dB SPL can significantly attenuate OAE signals. We strongly suggest contralateral ear occlusion in OAE based hearing screening in noisy environments. 1. Introduction Audiometric testing in general is best carried out in a low noise environment. Indeed most clinical testing is done in sound attenuating booths, where background noise levels are typically below 20?dB SPL (for frequencies of audiometric interest). For performing behavioral (pure tone and speech audiometry) and physiological tests (auditory evoked potentials and OAEs) the focus has been on maintaining a good signal to noise ratio for the test signals presented. The issue addressed in the present study pertains not to the test ear but to the contralateral ear that may or may not be occluded. In neonatal or newborn hearing screening with OAEs most protocols do not specify any occlusion or plugging of the nontest ear (e.g., [1–11]). However, such screening tests are routinely carried out in a noisy hospital or clinic environments. Newborn babies may be screened in patient’s rooms, clinical areas, or a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), where ambient sound levels can be as high as 60–70?dB SPL (e.g., [12–16]). The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that sound levels in an NICU should not exceed 45?dB, but most often this is not the case. Indeed a review by Konkani and Oakley reveals that ambient noise levels in typical NICUs can exceed 80?dB