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    B. D. Cullity, Elements of X-Ray Diffraction, Addison-Wesley, Boston, Mass, USA, 1978.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Prediction of the Setting Properties of Calcium Phosphate Bone Cement
  • AUTHORS: Seyed Mahmud Rabiee,Hamid Baseri
  • JOURNAL NAME: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience DOI: 10.1155/2012/809235 Sep 16, 2014
  • ABSTRACT: Setting properties of bone substitutes are improved using an injectable system. The injectable bone graft substitutes can be molded to the shape of the bone cavity and set in situ when injected. Such system is useful for surgical operation. The powder part of the injectable bone cement is included of β-tricalcium phosphate, calcium carbonate, and dicalcium phosphate and the liquid part contains poly ethylene glycol solution with different concentrations. In this way, prediction of the mechanical properties, setting times, and injectability helps to optimize the calcium phosphate bone cement properties. The objective of this study is development of three different adaptive neurofuzzy inference systems (ANFISs) for estimation of compression strength, setting time, and injectability using the data generated based on experimental observations. The input parameters of models are polyethylene glycol percent and liquid/powder ratio. Comparison of the predicted values and measured data indicates that the ANFIS model has an acceptable performance to the estimation of calcium phosphate bone cement properties. 1. Introduction Bioactive calcium phosphates such as hydroxyapatite (HA) Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, tricalcium phosphate (TCP) Ca3(PO4)2, tetracalcium phosphate (Ca4P2O9), and dicalcum phosphate (DCP) CaHPO4 have been widely applied for hard tissue substitute materials, due to their good biocompatibility and bioactivity [1–4]. Many studies have evidenced the excellent biocompatibility of calcium phosphates (CaPs) and their favorable interaction with hard tissue [5, 6]. The shapes of CaPs for the practical uses are classified into the dense and porous CaP blocks [7, 8], the powders and granules [9], the CaP coating [10, 11], and the CaP cement [12, 13]. The hardened forms of CaPs have a major disadvantage. One of the shortcomings is the difficulty of fitting into the defects. The particulate form of CaP can easily fill the defects; however, it migrates or disperses into surrounding tissue [14, 15]. One of the major improvements in CaPs in recent years is the development of an injectable system. The injectable bone graft substitutes can mold to the shape of the bone cavity and set in situ when injected. Such systems should shorten the surgical operation time, reduce the damaging effects of large muscle retraction, decrease the size of the scars and diminish postoperative pain. It also allows the patient to achieve rapid recovery in a cost-effective manner [15, 16]. Calcium phosphate cements (CaPCs) were the first injectable bone filling developed for bone substitute