This study investigated the relationship between taste sensitivity, the frequency and the preference for eating foods rich in zinc, dietary habits, and restrained eating among Japanese female undergraduate students. Forty-three subjects be-tween the ages of 20 and 22 participated in this study. After a taste-sensitivity test for sweetness and saltiness the stu-dents completed a food list indicating the intake frequency and preference of foods rich in zinc and their eating habits. The students were divided into four groups: high salt-taste sensitivity (SA-HG), low salt-taste sensitivity (SA-LG), high sweet-taste sensitivity (SW-HG), and low sweet-taste sensitivity (SW-LG). Individuals in the SA-HG group ate more foods rich in zinc and were more concerned with their health than those in the SA-LG group. Further, the SW-LG group ate more convenience foods than the SW-HG group. High salt-taste sensitivity could be predicted by eating more but less preference of foods rich in zinc, less snacking, and greater regularity of meals. On the other hand there is a signifi-cant positive relationship between the frequencies of eating and preference for foods rich in zinc. This means the results were inconsistent, further research is needed to clarify this point.
J. E. Stewart, C. Feinel-Bissert, M. Golding, C. Delahunty, P. M. Clifton and R. S. J. Keast, “Oral Sensitivity to Fatty Acids, Food Consumption and BMI in Human Subjects,” British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 104, No. 1, 2010, pp. 145-152. doi:10.1017/S0007114510000267
M. Y. Pepino, S. Finkbeiner, G. K. Beauchamp and J. A. Mennella, “Obese Women Have Lower Monosodium Glutamate Taste Sensitivity and Prefer High Concentrations than Normal Women,” Obesity, Vol. 18, No. 5, 2010, pp. 959-965. doi:10.1038/oby.2009.493
M. Ikeda, M. Aiba, A. Ikui, A. Inokuchi, Y. Kurono, M. Sakagami, M. Takeda and H. Tomita, “Taste Disorders: A Survey of the Examination Methods and Treatments Used in Japan,” Acta Oto-Laryngologica (Stockh), Vol. 125, No. 11, 2005, pp. 1203-1210.
B. J. Stewart-Knox, E. E. A. Simpson, H. Parr, G. Rae, A. Polito, F. Intorre, N. Meunier, M. Andriollo-Sanchez, J. M. O’Connor, C. Coudray and J. J. Strain, “Zinc Status and Taste Acuity in Older Europeans: The ZENITH Study,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 59, 2005, pp. 31-36. doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602295
B. J. Stewart-Knox, E. E. A. Simpson, H. Parr, G. Rae, A. Polito, F. Intorre, M. Andriollo-Sanchez, N. Meunier, J. M. O’Connor, G. Maiani, C. Coudray and J. J. Strain, “Taste acuity in Response to Zinc Supplementation in Older Europeans,” British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 99, 2008, pp. 129-136. doi:10.1017/S0007114507781485
P. Pavlidis, V. Nikolaidis, A. Anogeianaki, D. Koutsonikolas, G. Kekes and G. Anogianakis, “Evaluation of Young Smokers and Non-Smokers with Electrogustometry and Contact Endoscopy,” BMC Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders, Vol. 9, 2009, p. 9. doi:10.1186/1472-6815-9-9
M. M. Pluhator, A. B. R. Thomson and R. N. Fedorak, “Clinical Aspects of Trace Elements: Zinc in Human Nutrition-Assessment of Zinc Status,” Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology, Vol. 10, 1996, pp. 37-42.
O. McDaid, B. Stewart-Knox, H. Parr and E. Simpson, “Dietary Zinc Intake and Sex Differences in Taste Acuity in Healthy Young Adults,” Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, Vol. 20, No. 2, 2007, pp. 103-110.
R. L. Katz, C. L. Keen, I. F. Litt, L. S. Hurley, K. M. Kellams-Harrison and L. J. Glader, “Zinc Deficiency in Anorexia Nervosa,” Journal of Adolescent Health Care, Vol. 8, No. 5, 1987, pp. 400-406.
P. L. Klumb, C. A. Hoppmann and M. Staats, “Division of Labor in German Dual-Earner Families: Testing Equity-Theoretical Hypotheses,” Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 68, No. 4, 2006, pp. 870-882.
K. M. T. Quek and K. Knudson-Martin, “A Push toward Equality: Processes among Dual-Career Newlywed Couples in Collectivist Culture,” Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 68, No. 1, 2006, pp. 56-69.
Y. Yamauchi, S. Endo, F. Sakai and I. Yoshimura, “A New Whole-Mouth Gustatory Test Procedure: I. Thresholds and Principal Components Analysis in Healthy Men and Women,” Acta Oto-Laryngologica, Vol. 122, Suppl. 546, 2002, pp. 39-48. doi:10.1080/00016480260046409
H. Hasegawa and H. Tomita, “Assessment of Taste Disorders in Rat by Simultaneous Study of the Two-Bottle Preference Test and Abnormal Ingestive Behavior,” Auris-Nasus-Larynx (Tokyo), Vol. 15, 1988, pp. 117-127.
R. B. Martha and J. P. Gary, “Association of Thermal Taste and PROP Responsiveness with Food Liking, Neophobia, Body Mass Index, and Waist Circumference,” Food Quality and Preference, Vol. 21, No. 6, 2010, pp. 589-601. doi:10.1016/j.foodqual.2010.03.007
K. L. Keller, L. Steinmann, R. J. Nurse and B.J. Tepper, “Genetic Taste Sensitivity to 6-N-propylthiouracil Influences Food Preference and Reported Intake in Preschool Children,” Appetite, Vol. 38, No. 1, 2002, pp. 3-12.
S. A. Isezuo, Y. Saidu, S. Anas, B. U. Tambuwal and L. S. Bilbis, “Salt Taste Perception and Relationship with Blood Pressure in Type 2 Diabetics,” Journal of Human Hypertension, Vol. 22, 2008, pp. 432-434.
L. Hooper, C.Bartlett, G. D. Smith and S. Ebrahim, “Advice to Reduce Dietary Salt for Prevention of Cardiovascular disease,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, The Cochrane Collaboration, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., New York, 2009.
J. B. Block, R. A. Scribner and K. B. DeSalvo, “Fast Food, Race/Ethnicity, and Income, A Geographic Analysis,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Vol. 27, No. 3, 2004, pp. 211-217.
C. A. Roberto, J. Baik, J. L. Harris and K. D. Brownell, “Influence of Licensed Characters on Children’s Taste and Snack Preferences,” Pediatrics, Vol. 126, No. 1, 2010, pp. 88-93. doi:10.1542/peds.2009-3433
M. Maes, P. C. Haese, S. Scharpe, P. D. D’Hondt, P. Cosyns and M. E. De Broe, “Hipozincemia in Depression,” Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 31, No. 2, 1994, pp. 135-140. doi:10.1016/0165-0327(94)90117-1
G. Nowak, M. Siwek, D. Dudek, A. Zieba and A. Pilc, “Effect of Zinc Supplementation on Antidepressant Therapy in Unipolar Depression: A Preliminary Placebo-Controlled Study,” Polish Journal of Pharmacology, Vol. 55, No. 6, 2003, pp. 1143-1147.
H. Tsunoda, K. Kamijima, H. Miyaoka and T. Nagai, “Threshold Levels of Taste Perception and Severity of Depression,” Japanese Society of Psychosomatic Medicine, Vol. 42, 2002, pp. 217-224 (in Japanese).
M. Bilici, F. Yildirim, S. Kandil, M. Bekaroglu, S. Yildirmis, O. Deger, M. ülgen, A. Yildiran and H. Aksu, “Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Zinc Sulphate in the Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder,” Progress in Neuro-Pharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, Vol. 28, No. 1, 2004, pp. 181-190.