the purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of selection of a population of yellow passion fruit in the second cycle of recurrent selection, based on molecular and agronomic data. in 39 full-sib progenies, genotyped using microsatellite markers, 11 agronomic traits were evaluated. the progenies were selected based on the genetic distance matrix and the selection efficiency was confirmed based on the most important agronomic traits of yellow passion fruit. only 12 of the 25 best progenies were identified by all three selection strategies (agronomic, molecular and combined selection). no significant correlation was observed between the genetic distance matrices and the molecular x agronomic data. the progenies selected by molecular markers had the highest mean yield and fruit number. results indicate the possibility of applying this combined selection procedure based on agronomic as well as molecular data to optimize genetic gain for the traits under selection.