The C/PbO2 electrode assisted electrochemical removal of diquat dibromide herbicides solutions has been the subject of the present investigation under several operating conditions. The optimum conditions of the treatment process are: current density of 150 mA/cm2, pH 2.2, NaCl concentration 2 g/L, temperature of 10?C and initial diquat concentration of 50 mg/L. The time of electrolysis is 60 min for degradation rate of diquat and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal is 210 min. The results were obtained by UV-Vis spectrophotometer and the present designed electrode was coincident.
T. Chichila and S. Walters, “Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Paraquat and Diquat in Crops Using a Silica Column with Aqueous Ionic Mobile Phase,” Journal—Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Vol. 74, 1991, pp. 961-967.
TOXNET, “National Library of Medicine’s Toxicology Data Network,” Hazardous Substances Da-tabank, Public Health Service, National Institute of Health, U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, NLM, Bethesda, 1985.
D. W. Miwa, G. R. P. Malpass, S. A. S. Machado and A. J. Motheo, “Electrochemical Degradation of Carbaryl on Oxide Electrodes,” Water Research, Vol. 40, No. 17, 2006, pp. 3281-3289. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2006.06.033
A. Vlyssides, D. Ara-poglou, S. Mai and E. M. Barampouti, “Electrochemical Oxidation of Two Organophosphoric Obsolete Pesticide Stocks,” International Journal of Environment and Pollution, Vol. 23, No. 3, 2005, pp. 289-299.
J. Gao, G. Zhao, W. Shi and D. Li, “Microwave Activated Electrochemical Degradation of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxya- cetic Acid at Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode,” Chemo- sphere, Vol. 75, No. 4, 2009, pp. 519-525.
C. Flox, P. L. Cabot, F. Centelas, J. A. Garrido, R. M. Rodríguez, C. Arias and E. Brillas, “Electrochemical Combustion of Herbicide Mecoprop in Aqueous Medium Using a Flow Reactor with a Boron-Doped Diamond Anode,” Chemosphere, Vol. 64, No. 6, 2006, pp. 892-902.
M. Polcaro, S. Palmas, F. Renoldi and M. Mascia, “On the Performance of Ti/SnO2 and Ti/PbO2 Anodesin Electrochemical Degradation of 2-Chlorophenol for Wastewater Treatment,” Journal of Applied Electro- chemistry, Vol. 29, No. 2, 1999, pp. 147-151.
C. A. Mart?nez-Huitle, M. A. Quiroz, C. Comninellis, S. Ferro and A. D. Battisti, “Electrochemical Incineration of Chloranilic Acid Using Ti/IrO2, Pb/PbO2 and Si/BDD electrodes,” Electrochimica Acta, Vol. 50, No. 4, 2004, pp. 949-956. doi:10.1016/j.electacta.2004.07.035
M. H. Abu Shawish N. Abu Ghalwa, M. Hamada and H. Basheer, “Modified Carbon Paste Electrode for Potenti- ometric Determination of Diquat Dibromide Pesticide in Water and Urine samples,” Materials Science and Engineering C, 2011, in Press.
K. C. Narasimham and H. V. K. Udupa, “Preparation and Applications of Graphite Substrate Lead Dioxide (GSLD) Anode,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, Vol. 123, No. 9, 1976, pp. 1294-1298. doi:10.1149/1.2133063
M. H. Mashhadizadeh, M. Talakesh, M. Peste, A. Momeni, H. Hamidian and M. Mazlum, “A Novel Modified Carbon Paste Electrode for potentiometric Determination of Mercury(II) Ion,” Electroanalysis, Vol. 18, No. 22, 2006 pp. 2174-2179.
H. S. Awad and N. Abo Galwa, “Electrochemical Degradation of Acid Blue and Basic Brown dyes on Pb/PbO2 Electrode in the Presence of Different Con-ductive Electrolyte and Effect of Various Operating Factors,” Chemosphere, Vol. 61, No. 9, 2005, pp. 1327-1335.
M. Panizza, C. Bocca and G. Cerisola, “Electrochemical Treatment of Waste Water Containing Poliaromatic Organic Pollutants,” Water Research, Vol. 34, No. 9, 2000, pp. 2601-2605.
H. Florencio, M. Pires, E. Castro, L. A. Nunes, R. M. Borges and F. M. Costa, “Photodegradation of Diquat and Paraquat in Aqueous Solutions by Titanium Dioxide: Evolution of Degradation Reactions and Characterization of Intermediate,” Chemosphere, Vol. 55, No. 3, 2004, pp. 345-355. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2003.11.013
A. Kraft, M. Stadelmann, M. Blaschke, D. Kreysig, B. Sandt, F. Schr?der and J. Rennau, “Electrochemical Water Disinfection Part 1: Hypochlorite Production from Very Dilute Chloride Solutions,” Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, Vol. 29, 1999, pp. 861-868.