the study of genetic variability, social organization and biogeography allows new interpretations of the speciogenic process. in primates, in the decade of 80′ the first cytogenetic studies conducted in argentina, applied classical banding techniques (g, c, nor). cebus sp., saimiri boliviensis, aotus azarae and callithrix jacchus (cebidae); ateles sp., alouatta sp. (atelidae), were characterized due to their high occurrence in zoos and breeding centre. chromosomal number together with g and c-banding patterns were established analyzing specimens in captivity as well as wild population ones confirming the species status. our understanding of the complex superfamily ceboidea taxonomy has been enlightened by a multidisciplinary approach, including the analysis of chromosomal rearrangements involving heterochromatin, telomeric interstitials sequences and the potential pattern of human genomic conservation (g-c/fish/cgh). the male meiotic characterization applying classical techniques and synaptonemic complex protein inmunofluorescence del collaborates defines the taxonomic diagnosis. karyotypic characterization contributes to the better understanding of the genomic flexibility in these species. chromosomal speciation are milestones for future conservation proposals related to this fauna in order to improve and to continue collaborative projects with breeding centres, zoos and museums, areas where the traditional morphological systematic found in genetics an irreplaceable tool. multidisciplinary works allows the connection between wildlife data analysis and captive colonies programs to contribute of useful management, forming human resources and performing, for the first time, a new form of imaging registration and a data base considering the different karyosystematic and taxonomic parameters applied in primates.