objective: to compare neurological symptoms and signs in htlv-1 asymptomatic carriers and htlv-1 patients with overactive bladder (ob) syndrome. methods: we studied 102 htlv-1 positive individuals without ham/tsp (htlv-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis) divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of ob syndrome. clinical interview, neurological exam and proviral load was performed in all patients. results and conclusions: individuals with ob were more commonly female (84.3 vs. 60.8% of asymptomatics, p=0.01). the prevalence of neurological complaints was higher in ob group, especially hand or foot numbness and arm or leg weakness. there was no difference between the groups in neurological strength and reflexes. weakness complaint remained strongly associated with ob in multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting for sex and age [adjusted odds ratio and 95%ci 3.59 (1.45-8.88) in arms and 6.68 (2.63-16.93) in legs]. proviral load was also different between the two groups with higher level on ob individuals.