context: most patients subjected to liver transplantation presents hypersplenism, which is reversed after the operation. however, some patients remain with moderate to intense hypersplenism. objectives: to study the effect of liver transplantation on platelet count in patients with hypersplenism. method: of a total of 233 patients who underwent liver transplantation, 162 were excluded from the present study because of occurrence of steroid-resistant rejection, absence of hypersplenism before the transplantation, absence of follow-up for at least 2 years or incomplete exams data. the electronic study protocols of the remaining 71 patients were reviewed to determine the demographics, etiology of cirrhosis, and results of pathologic examination of the explanted liver. serial platelet count was obtained from the study protocol on the day before liver transplantation and 1, 2, 4, and 6 months and 1 year after liver transplantation. statistical analysis was performed using the student's t-test, chi-square test, and spearman's correlation test. results: posttransplant platelet count at all time intervals was significantly higher than the pretransplant value (p<0.001 for all time intervals). thrombocytopenia was reversed (platelet count >100,000/mm3) in 58 patients (81.7%) 1 month after liver transplantation. twelve patients (16.9%) remained with thrombocytopenia 1 year after liver transplantation. three patients (4.2%) had recurrence of thrombocytopenia within 1 year after liver transplantation. there was no correlation between pretransplant platelet count and the child-pugh class or the meld score. conclusion: liver transplantation reverses hypersplenism in most patients.