the social policies implemented by the first peronist government led to substantial improvement in the quality of life of vast sectors of the population in argentina. this was possible, firstly, by introducing changes in labor market conditions and income distribution, and secondly, by establishing active public policies to defend the interests of popular sectors. this set of measures enabled the peronist government to respond to the claims and demands of vast sectors of the population which had been neglected by the preceding governments. however, the measures aimed at responding to the claims of indigenous communities, one of the most unprotected sectors in the argentine society of the time, were limited and belated, thus having a rather insignificant impact. this paper offers a first approximation to the analysis of the policies addressed to this sector by the national state between 1946 and 1955.