the goal of this work was to provide a detailed description of prosopis flexuosa dc. (algarrobo dulce), a characteristic tree of the argentine arid regions. to do so we consulted the classic literature about this species as well as the last published papers in national and international journals. the obtained information comprises the following subjects: description of the species, geographic distribution, habitat and communities, growth habit and morphology, cytogenetic characteristics, growth and phenology, ecophysiology and biological interactions. the work ends with the relation of the woods inhabitants and the algarrobo, through the management of the prosopis woods and the ethnobotanic uses that this species has afforded since prehispanic times.