caesarean section is the most often performed surgical procedure in obstetric practice, and puerperal endometritis is the most common complication. this study evaluated the effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis prior to a cesarean section to prevent puerperal infection. we reviewed published literature between 1994 and 2009 related to antibiotic prophylaxis prior to caesarean section using the md consult and ebsco databases. published works were classified in two groups: those supporting the prophylaxis and those against such practice. we also recorded antibiotic effectiveness. the majority of published works 99% concluded that the use of prophylactic antibiotics was an effective measure against infection. additionally, 71.4% of the studies concluded that antibiotic prophylaxis is most effective if applied prior to surgical incision, while 28.6% found no correlation with the time of application. according to the data, antibiotic prophylaxis prior to caesarean section is an effective measure against puerperal infection. the ideal time for the implementation of prophylaxis is prior to surgical incision in caesarean section and has no adverse effects on newborn infants.