All Title Author
Keywords Abstract


Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori cagA and sabA Genotypes in Patients with Gastric Disease

DOI: 10.4236/aim.2019.93017, PP. 239-247

Keywords: Stomach Neoplasms, Helicobacter pylori, sabA, cagA

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

Gastric cancer is one of the most common types of cancer worldwide. Helicobacter pylori is considered one of the most important causes of this condition specially because of its virulence markers as sabA and cagA. Therefore, we aim to investigate the relation between these markers and the gastric diseases in 400 patients who underwent upper digestive endoscopy. To detect the bacteria and its genes by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), the presence of H. pylori was significant when comparing the groups control vs. cancer (p value < 0.0001) OR [95% CI] 12.73 (5.45 - 29.69) and the groups control vs. chronic gastritis (p value < 0.0001) OR [95% CI] 12.99 (7.44 - 22.66). cagA was statistically significant considering its presence when comparing the chronic gastritis vs. cancer groups (p value = 0.0434) OR [95% CI] 2.44 (1.021 - 5.845). Associating both sabA and cagA, we found a statistically significant result (p value < 0.0001) OR [95% CI] 13.68 (3.95 - 47.33) considering the gastritis vs. cancer groups. Helicobacter pylori is directly associated to gastric diseases such as gastritis and cancer and its virulence markers: sabA and cagA increase the injury process to the gastric epithelium making the host more susceptible to cancer.

References

[1]  Cheung, K.-S. and Leung, W.K. (2018) Risk of Gastric Cancer Development after Eradication of Helicobacter pylori. World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology, 10, 115-123.
https://doi.org/10.4251/wjgo.v10.i5.115
[2]  Zheng, W., Zhang, S., Zhang, S., Min, L., Wang, Y., Xie, J., et al. (2017) The Relationship between Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Polymorphisms and Gastric Cancer Risk: An Updated Meta-Analysis. Biomedical Reports, 7, 133-142.
https://doi.org/10.3892/br.2017.934
[3]  Xu, Y., Cao, X., Jiang, J., Chen, Y. and Wang, K. (2016) TNF-308/-238 Polymorphisms Areassociated with Gastric Cancer: A Case-Control Family Study in China. Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology, 41, 103-109.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinre.2016.05.014
[4]  Backert, S. and Tegtmeyer, N. (2017) Type IV Secretion and Signal Transduction of Helicobacter pylori cagA through Interactions with Host Cell Receptors. Toxins, 9, 115.
https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins9040115
[5]  Gall, A., Gaudet, R.G., Gray-Owen, S.D. and Salama, N.R. (2017) TIFA Signaling in Gastric Epithelial Cells Initiates the Cag Type 4 Secretion System-Dependent Innate Immune Response to Helicobacter pylori Infection. mBio, 8, e01168-17.
https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01168-17
[6]  álvarez-Arellano, L. and Maldonado-Bernal, C. (2014) Helicobacter pylori and Neurological Diseases: Married by the Laws of Inflammation. World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology, 5, 400-404.
https://doi.org/10.4291/wjgp.v5.i4.400
[7]  Klerk, N., Maudsdotter, L., Gebreegziabher, H., Saroj, S.D., Eriksson, B., Eriksson, O.S., et al. (2016) Lactobacilli Reduce Helicobacter pylori Attachment to Host Gastric Epithelial Cells by Inhibiting Adhesion Gene Expression. Infection and Immunity, 84, 1526-1535.
https://doi.org/10.1128/IAI.00163-16
[8]  Li, M., Zhou, Q., Yang, K., Brigstock, D.R., Zhang, L., Xiu, M., et al. (2015) Rare Case of Helicobacter pylori-Positive Multiorgan IgG4-Related Disease and Gastric Cancer. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 21, 3429-3434.
https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v21.i11.3429
[9]  Magalhães, A., Pinto, R.M., Nairn, A.V., Rosa, M.D., Ferreira, R.M., Neto, S.J., et al. (2015) Helicobacter pylori Chronic Infection and Mucosal Inflammation Switches the Human Gastric Glycosylation Pathways. Biochim Biophys Acta, 1852, 1928-1939.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbadis.2015.07.001
[10]  Alzahrani, S., Lina, T.T., Gonzalez, J., Pinchuk, I.V., Beswick, E.J. and Reyes, V.E. (2014) Effect of Helicobacter pylori on Gastric Epithelial Cells. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 20, 12767-12780.
https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v20.i36.12767
[11]  Kalali, B., Mejías-Luque, R., Javaheri, A. and Gerhard, M. (2014) H. pylori Virulence Factors: Influence on Immune System and Pathology. Mediators of Inflammation, 2014, Article ID: 426309.
https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/426309
[12]  Posselt, G., Backert, S. and Wessler, S. (2013) The Functional Interplay of Helicobacter pylori Factors with Gastric Epithelial Cells Induces a Multi-Step Process in Pathogenesis. Cell Communication and Signaling, 11, 77.
https://doi.org/10.1186/1478-811X-11-77
[13]  Pakbaz, Z., Shirazi, M.H., Ranjbar, R., Reza Pourmand, M., Gholi, M.K., Aliramezani, A., et al. (2013) Frequency of sabA Gene in Helicobacter pylori Strains Isolated From Patients in Tehran, Iran. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal, 15, 767-770.
https://doi.org/10.5812/ircmj.5044
[14]  Santibáñez, M., Aguirre, E., Belda, S., Aragones, N., Saez, J., Rodríguez, J.C., et al. (2015) Relationship between Tobacco, cagA and vacA i1 Virulence Factors and Bacterial Load in Patients Infected by Helicobacter pylori. PLoS ONE, 10, e0126540.
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126540
[15]  Stolte, M. and Meining, A. (2001) The Updated Sydney System: Classification and Grading of Gastritis as the Basis of Diagnosis and Treatment. Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology, 15, 591-598.
https://doi.org/10.1155/2001/367832
[16]  Hu, B., El Hajj, N., Sittler, S., Lammert, N., Barnes, R. and Meloni-Ehrig, A. (2012) Gastric Cancer: Classification, Histology and Application of Molecular Pathology. Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology, 3, 251-261.
[17]  Scholte, G.H., van Doorn, L.J., Quint, W.G. and Lindeman, J. (1997) Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Detection of Helicobacter pylori in Formaldehyde-Sublimate Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Gastric Biopsies. Diagnostic Molecular Pathology, 6, 238-243.
https://doi.org/10.1097/00019606-199708000-00008
[18]  Pereira, W.N., Ferraz, M.A., Zabaglia, L.M., Labio, R.W., Orcini, W-A., Ximenez, J-P.B., et al. (2014) Association among H. pylori Virulence Markers dupA, cagA and vacA in Brazilian Patients. Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases, 20, 1.
https://doi.org/10.1186/1678-9199-20-1
[19]  Shao, L., Takeda, H., Fukui, T., Mabe, K., Han, J., Kawata, S., et al. (2010) Genetic Diversity of the Helicobacter pylori Sialic Acid-Binding Adhesin (sabA) Gene. BioScience Trends, 4, 249-253.
[20]  Rasmussen, L.T., de Labio, R.W., Neto, A.C., Silva, L.C., Queiroz, V.F., Smith, M.A.C., et al. (2012) Detection of Helicobacter pylori in Gastric Biopsies, Saliva and Dental Plaques of Dyspeptic Patients from Marília, São Paulo, Brazil: Presence of vacA and cagA Genes. Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases, 18, 180-187.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1678-91992012000200008
[21]  Van Doorn, L.J., Figueiredo, C., Rossau, R., Jannes, G., van Asbroek, M., Sousa, J.C., et al. (1998) Typing of Helicobacter pylori vacA Gene and Detection of cagA Gene by PCR and Reverse Hybridization. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 36, 1271-1276.
[22]  Warren, J.R. and Marshall, B. (1983) Unidentified Curved Bacilli on Gastric Epithelium in Active Chronic Gastritis. The Lancet, 321, 1273-1275.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(83)92719-8
[23]  Suerbaum, S. and Michetti, P. (2002) Helicobacter Pylori Infection. New England Journal of Medicine, 347, 1597-1604.
https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra020542
[24]  Salim, D.K., Sahin, M., Köksoy, S., Adanir, H. and Süleymanlar, I. (2016) Local Immune Response in Helicobacter pylori Infection. Medicine, 95, e3713.
[25]  Venerito, M., Vasapolli, R., Rokkas, T., Delchier, J.-C. and Malfertheiner, P. (2017) Helicobacter pylori, Gastric Cancer and Other Gastrointestinal Malignancies. Helicobacter, 22, e12413.
https://doi.org/10.1111/hel.12413
[26]  Pang, S.S., Nguyen, S.T., Perry, A.J., Day, C.J., Panjikar, S., Tiralongo, J., et al. (2014) The Three-Dimensional Structure of the Extracelular Adhesion Domain of the Sialic Acid-Binding Adhesin SabA from Helicobacter pylori. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 289, 6332-6340.
https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M113.513135
[27]  Oleastro, M. and Ménard, A. (2013) The Role of Helicobacter pylori Outer Membrane Proteins in Adherence and Pathogenesis. Biology, 2, 1110-1134.
https://doi.org/10.3390/biology2031110
[28]  Nishioka, M., Takeuchi, H., Com, A.S., Uehara, Y., Nishimori, I., Okumiya, T., et al. (2010) The Mechanical Binding Strengths of Helicobacter pylori BabA and SabA Adhesins Using an Adhesion Binding Assay-ELISA, and Its Clinical Relevance in Japan. Microbiology and Immunology, 54, 442-451.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1348-0421.2010.00237.x
[29]  Kato, S., Osaki, T., Kamiya, S., Zhang, X.-S. and Blaser, M.J. (2017) Helicobacter pylori sabA Gene Is Associated with Iron Deficiency Anemia in Childhood and Adolescence. PLoS ONE, 12, e0184046.
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0184046
[30]  Wang, F., Meng, W., Wang, B. and Qiao, L. (2014) Helicobacter pylori-Induced Gastric Inflammation and Gastric Cancer. Cancer Letters, 345, 196-202.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2013.08.016
[31]  Oldani, A., Cormont, M., Hofman, V., Chiozzi, V., Oregioni, O., Canonici, A., et al. (2009) Helicobacter pylori Counteracts the Apoptotic Action of Its VacA Toxin by Injecting the CagA Protein into Gastric Epithelial Cells. PLoS Pathogens, 5, e1000603.
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000603
[32]  Yamaoka, Y., Ojo, O., Fujimoto, S., Odenbreit, S., Haas, R., Gutierrez, O., et al. (2006) Helicobacter pylori Outer Membrane Proteins and Gastroduodenal Disease. Gut, 55, 775-781.
https://doi.org/10.1136/gut.2005.083014
[33]  Backert, S., Clyne, M. and Tegtmeyer, N. (2011) Molecular Mechanisms of Gastric Epithelial Cell Adhesion and Injection of CagA by Helicobacter pylori. Cell Communication and Signaling, 9, 28.
https://doi.org/10.1186/1478-811X-9-28

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus