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-  2018 

基于效率优化的增程式电动环卫车控制策略
Control strategy for a range-extended electric sanitation truck based on efficiency optimization

Keywords: 汽车工程,增程式电动环卫车,仿真,控制策略,定点发电,功率随动
automobile engineering
,range-extended electric sanitation truck,simulation,control strategy,fixed-point power generation,power servo

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Abstract:

为了提高增程式电动汽车在增程阶段的能量转换效率及整车的等效燃油经济性,以一款增程式电动环卫车为例,对增程器的3种不同控制策略进行了对比分析。首先基于台架试验的发动机油耗特性和发电机效率特性,合成得到增程器整体效率特性及其最优效率曲线,并在MATLAB/Simulink/Stateflow平台搭建整车正向动力系统仿真模型;然后对增程式电动汽车的等效能耗进行了推导,将所消耗燃油和电能全部换算为单一的燃油量;在此基础上基于中国典型城市客车运转工况,分别应用增程器定点发电、增程器沿最优效率曲线功率随动和增程器恒定转速随动输出功率这3种控制策略进行车辆行驶仿真试验。研究结果表明:增程器在定点发电模式下,能够始终工作于最高效率点,从而达到最优的能量转换效率,此时整车等效百公里油耗为29.22 L;??程器在恒转速功率随动模式下效率最低,其等效百公里油耗为33.41 L;增程器沿最优效率曲线的功率随动模式下比恒转速功率随动模式下的等效百公里油耗降低了约2.78 L,达到30.63 L。通过对比3种增程器控制策略的仿真结果发现,在增程式电动汽车??程器的电量消耗-电量维持工作模式下,定点发电模式能够使增程器达到最佳的工作效率并实现最小的整车等效百公里燃油消耗,可将其作为增程式电动汽车增程器的最佳控制策略。
In order to improve the energy conversion efficiency and equivalent fuel economy of the whole vehicle for a range-extended sanitation truck in the process of extended range, three control strategies of the engine-generator unit (EGU) were compared by taking a range-extended electric sanitation truck as an example. Firstly, the overall efficiency characteristics and the efficiency curve of the EGU were obtained based on the engine’s fuel consumption characteristics and generator’s efficiency characteristics of the bench test, and then the simulation model of the whole vehicle’s forward dynamic system was built on the MATLAB/Simulink/Stateflow platform. Then, the equivalent fuel consumption of the range-extended electric vehicle was deduced. All consumed fuel and electric energy were converted into a single amount of fuel. Based on the typical operating conditions of urban passenger cars in China, three control strategies including the fixed-point power generation of the EGU, the servo output power of the EGU under optimal efficiency curve and servo output power of EGU with constant speed were used to conduct the simulation experiment of vehicle driving. The results show that in fixed-point power generation mode, the EGU can always work at the maximum efficiency point so as to achieve the optimal energy conversion efficiency. At this time, the fuel consumption of the whole vehicle is 29.22 L per 100 km. In the power servo with constant speed, the efficiency of EGU is the lowest, the fuel consumption of which is 33.41 L per 100 km. In the power servo mode under optimal efficiency curve, the fuel consumption of EGU is 30.63 L per 100 km, which is reduced by about 2.78 L than the power servo with constant speed. By comparing the simulation results of three EGUs’ control strategies, it is found that under the mode of electricity-consumption and electricity-maintenance of a range-extended sanitation truck, fixed-point power generation mode can achieve the optimal working efficiency of EGU and achieve the

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