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-  2017 

草原超载过牧的牧户异质性研究
Study on herdsman-level heterogeneity of grassland overgrazing

Keywords: 超载过牧 草畜平衡 人畜草平衡 牧户异质性 内蒙古
overgrazing grassland-livestock balance human-grassland-livestock balance herdsman-level heterogeneity Inner Mongolia

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为研究草原超载过牧的牧户异质性,利用2014年内蒙古自治区阿拉善左旗、四子王旗和陈巴尔虎旗3个旗县的320户牧户样本数据,对家庭承包经营模式下草原超载过牧的牧户异质性进行了研究。结果表明:中小牧户是草原超载的主体,草场经营面积越小,载畜量的草地面积单位越低。中小牧户是草场租入的主体,草场承包面积越小,租入草场的概率越高。大牧户是雇工放牧的主体,草场经营面积越大,雇工放牧的概率越高。在家庭承包经营模式下,草场面积是影响牧户是否超载和超载程度的重要因素。为了达到草原生态保护,实现草畜平衡,在制定和完善一些政策措施时,应该瞄准草原超载的主体,重点关注草地资源禀赋较差的地区和牧户。在草地资源禀赋适中的地区,应该鼓励和支持有条件的中小牧户进行草场流转,扩大草场经营规模,实现适度规模经营。在草地资源禀赋较差的地区,应该反思围栏的必要性,尝试探索新的草地管理模式,例如集体草场的社区参与式管理。
Study on the herdsman-level heterogeneity of grassland overgrazing is conducted by using the data of 320 herdsmen in three banners,which are Alxa Left Banner,Siziwang Banner and Old Barag Banner of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.An empirical study on herdsman-level heterogeneity of grassland overgrazing in the institution of grassland household contract management is performed.The results show that:Small and medium-sized holders are the main body of grassland overgrazing,the smaller the pasture management area is,the lower the carrying capacity unit of rangeland area is.Small and medium-sized holders are also the main body of pasture renting in.The smaller the pasture contracting area is,the higher the probability of pasture renting in is.Big-sized holders are the main body of grassland grazing by hiring shepherds.The bigger the pasture management area is,the higher the probability of grassland grazing by hiring shepherd is.In the situation of grassland household contract management,grassland area is the important factor affecting whether herdsmen are overgrazing and the degree of overgrazing.To promote sustainable development of grassland,realize grassland livestock balance,policies and measures should be taken targeting the main body of grassland overgrazing and focusing on the herdsmen or areas with poor grassland resources endowment.In the area with medium grassland resources endowment,small and medium-sized holders should be encouraged and supported to transfer pasture,expand their scales of pasture management and realize moderate scale management.In the area with poor grassland resources endowment,policies and measures should reflect on the necessity of fence,explore new grassland management model,such as community participatory management.

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