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-  2017 

不同冬小麦品种超晚播节水栽培的物质积累和水分利用特征
Characteristics of biomass production and water use in different winter wheat cultivars under extremely-late sown and water-saving cultivation

Keywords: 冬小麦 超晚播 品种 产量 生物量 水分利用效率
winter wheat extremely-late sowing cultivar grain yield biomass water use efficiency

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Abstract:

为探究超晚播条件下不同品种冬小麦的物质积累和水分利用特征,采用3个不同穗型冬小麦品种(小穗型衡水4399;大穗型潍麦8号;中间型济麦22)在黑龙港地区进行了连续3年的大田试验。结果表明,超晚播配合增加播种量,春浇1水可以获得产量为6.43~8.24 t/hm2。在3个品种中,济麦22产量和水分利用效率最高。品种间产量的差异主要是粒重差异引起的。济麦22较高的千粒重和产量与其较高的开花期穗生物量分配、花后物质积累和收获指数密切相关。济麦22花前水分的穗干物质生产效率、花后水分的干物质生产效率和籽粒干物质生产效率均显著高于潍麦8号和衡水4399,从而获得了最高的水分利用效率。综合分析表明,穗型中等、花后物质积累和水分生产力高的品种更适合于超晚播节水栽培。
In order to investigate characteristics of biomass production and water of different winter wheat cultivars,a three-year field experiment was conducted on three cultivars with different spike types (small spike cultivar Hengshui 4399,large spike cultivar Weimai 8 and medium spike cultivar Jimai 22) in low champaign area of Heilonggang,which were sown on extremely-late sowing date.The results showed that yield of 6.43-8.24 t/hm2 was obtained in extremely-late sown winter wheat under one irrigation regime combined with increased seeding amount.Among the three cultivars,yield and water use efficiency were the highest in cultivar Jimai 22.The highest yield in Jimai 22 was largely determined by the highest 1 000-grain weight,which were associated with the highest biomass partitioning in spike at anthesis,post-anthesis biomass and harvest index in Jimai 22.Water use efficiency for spike biomass at anthesis,post-anthesis biomass and grain biomass at maturity were higher in Jimai 22 than in other two cultivars,resulting in the highest water use efficiency in Jimai 22.In conclusion,cultivar with medium spike,high biomass and water productivity post-anthesis is better adapted to extremely-late sown and water-saving cultivation.

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