全部 标题 作者
关键词 摘要


Population Structure of Mycosphaerella graminicola and Location of Genes for Resistance to the Pathogen: Recent Advances in Argentina

DOI: 10.1155/2012/680275

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

Leaf blotch of wheat (Septoria tritici Rob. ex Desm., teleomorph Mycosphaerella graminicola (Fückel) Schr?t. in Cohn) causes significant losses in wheat. During the last decades studies about the genetic variability of the pathogen and location of the resistance have been intensive around the world. The knowledge about the genetic variation of M. graminicola is very important because it could allow us to determine which genotypes predominate within a geographic area. It also can be used to evaluate the germplasm resistance of wheat cultivars with isolates with high genetic differences. In addition, the knowledge of the genes conditioning resistance in different genotypes allows getting precise combination in new germplasm. The incorporation of the known genes in new cultivars could contribute to broadening the resistance to the pathogen. A paper about genetic variability of the pathogen and location of the resistance, with special emphasis in the work carried out in Argentina, is presented. 1. Importance and Biology of the Disease Leaf blotch of wheat (Septoria tritici Rob. ex Desm., teleomorph Mycosphaerella graminicola (Fückel) Schr?t. in Cohn) causes significant losses in wheat. In Argentina, yield losses from 21 to 37% [1], from 20 to 50% [2], and from 16 to 45% [3] have been found. In some other countries, yield reductions range from 31 to 54% [4], from 10 to 45% [5], and even reductions >60% have been reported [6]. Mycosphaerella graminicola is a hemibiotrophic pathogen; early infection is biotrophic, followed by a switch to necrotrophic growth just prior to symptom expression. The sexual stage is known to play a role in the disease cycle. It has been reported to cause most of the initial infection of winter wheat crops during the autumn in the UK [7] and in the USA [8]. An increase in ascospores at harvest time has been reported, suggesting that the sexual stage may be important to initiate the infection in the next growing season [9]. In Argentina, the sexual stage was also found [10]. Unburied crop residue is the major source or primary inoculum for Septoria tritici infecting wheat [8]. Ascospores are produced and released on this substrate [11]. Pseudothecia mature during winter and remain viable until early spring. Only 30?min of moistening stubble are necessary for ascospore release and dispersal [12, 13]. Different studies [9, 14] have confirmed that during spring and the beginning of summer, the severity of the epidemic was conditioned by pycnidiospores produced in the crop; nevertheless, ascospores were present from the time the first

References

[1]  G. Kraan and J. E. Nisi, “Septoriosis of wheat in Argentina. Situation of the crop against the disease. P1-8,” in Proceedings of the Septoria tritici Workshop, L. Gilchrist, et al., Ed., pp. 20–24, CIMMYT, Mexico City, Mexico, 1993.
[2]  J. G. Anonne, A. Calzolari, O. Polidoro, and H. Conta, Effect of the Leaf Blotch Caused by Septoria tritici on the Yield of Wheat, Booklet 122, INTA EEA Pergamino, Pergamino, Argentina, 1991.
[3]  M. R. Simón, A. E. Perelló, C. A. Cordo, and P. C. Struik, “Influence of Septoria tritici on yield, yield components, and test weight of wheat under two nitrogen fertilization conditions,” Crop Science, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 1974–1981, 2002.
[4]  Z. Eyal, A. L. Scharen, J. M. Prescott, and M. van Ginkel, The Septoria Diseases of Wheat. Concepts and Methods of Disease Management, CIMMYT, Mexico City, Mexico, 1987.
[5]  Caldwell R. M. and Narvaez I., “Losses of winter wheat from infection by Septoria tritici,” Phytopathology, vol. 50, p. 630, 1960.
[6]  W. A. Shipton, W. J. R. Boyd, and A. A. Rosielle, “The common Septoria diseases of wheat,” Botanical Review, vol. 37, pp. 231–262, 1971.
[7]  M. W. Shaw, “Assessment of upward movement of rain splash using a fluorescent tracer method and its application to the epidemiology of cereal pathogens,” Plant Pathology, vol. 38, pp. 35–43, 1987.
[8]  W. Schuh, “Influence of tillage systems on disease intensity and spatial pattern of Septoria leaf blotch,” Phytopathology, vol. 80, pp. 1337–1340, 1990.
[9]  C. A. Cordo, M. R. Simón, A. E. Perelló, and H. E. Alippi, “Spore dispersal of leaf blotch of wheat Mycosphaerella graminicola and Septoria tritici,” in Septoria and Stagonospora Diseases of Cereals. A Compilation of Global Research, M. van Ginkel, A. McNab, and J. Krupinsky, Eds., pp. 98–101, 1999.
[10]  C. A. Cordo, A. E. Perelló, H. E. Alippi, and H. O. Arriaga, “Presence of Mycosphaerella graminicola (Fuckel) Schroeter teleomorph Septoria tritici Rob. ex Desm. in maturity wheat of Argentina,” Revista de la Facultad de Agronomía, vol. 66-67, pp. 49–55, 1990.
[11]  G. Shaner, “Effect of environment of fungal leaf blights of small grains,” Annual Review of Phytopathology, vol. 19, pp. 273–296, 1981.
[12]  F. R. Sanderson, “Mycosphaerella species as the ascogenous state of Septoriatritici Rob. and Desm. N. Z.,” Journal of Botany, vol. 10, pp. 707–709, 1972.
[13]  F. R. Sanderson and J. G. Hampton, “Role of the perfect states in the epidemiology of the common Septoria diseases of wheat,” New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, vol. 21, pp. 277–281, 1978.
[14]  L. Eriksen and L. Munk, “The occurrence of Mycosphaerella graminicola and its anamorph Septoria tritici in winter wheat during the growing season,” European Journal of Plant Pathology, vol. 109, no. 3, pp. 253–259, 2003.
[15]  D. J. Lovell, S. R. Parker, T. Hunter, D. J. Royle, and R. R. Coker, “Influence of crop growth and structure on the risk of epidemics by Mycosphaerella graminicola (Septoria tritici) in winter wheat,” Plant Pathology, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 126–138, 1997.
[16]  T. Hunter, R. R. Coker, and D. J. Royle, “The teleomorph stage, Mycosphaerella graminicola, in epidemics of Septoria tritici blotch on winter wheat in the UK,” Plant Pathology, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 51–57, 1999.
[17]  C. A. Cordo, M. R. Simón, C. I. Mónaco et al., “Model for predictingthe release of spores of Mycosphaerella graminicola”.
[18]  R. S. Chen and B. A. McDonald, “Sexual reproduction plays a major role in the genetic structure of populations of the fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola,” Genetics, vol. 142, no. 4, pp. 1119–1127, 1996.
[19]  J. Zhan, C. C. Mundt, and B. A. McDonald, “Estimation of rates of recombination and migration in populations of plant pathogens: a reply,” Phytopathology, vol. 90, no. 4, pp. 324–326, 2000.
[20]  J. Zhan, C. C. Mundt, M. E. Hoffer, and B. A. McDonald, “Local adaptation and effect of host genotype on the rate of pathogen evolution: an experimental test in a plant pathosystem,” Journal of Evolutionary Biology, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 634–647, 2002.
[21]  J. Zhan, R. E. Pettway, and B. A. McDonald, “The global genetic structure of the wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola is characterized by high nuclear diversity, low mitochondrial diversity, regular recombination, and gene flow,” Fungal Genetics and Biology, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 286–297, 2003.
[22]  R. S. Chen, J. M. Boeger, and B. A. McDonald, “Genetic stability in a population of a plant pathogenic fungus over time,” Molecular Ecology, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 209–218, 1994.
[23]  F. Schnieder, G. Koch, C. Jung, and J. A. Verreet, “Genotypic diversity of the wheat leaf blotch pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola (anamorph) Septoria tritici in Germany,” European Journal of Plant Pathology, vol. 107, no. 3, pp. 285–290, 2001.
[24]  P. C. Czembor and E. Arseniuk, “Study of genetic variability among monopycnidial and monopycnidiospore isolates derived from single pycnidia of Stagonospora ssp. and Septoria tritici with the use of RAPD-PCR, MP-PCR and rep-PCR techniques,” Journal of Phytopathology, vol. 147, no. 9, pp. 539–546, 1999.
[25]  M. Razavi and G. R. Hughes, “Molecular variability of Mycosphaerella graminicola as detected by RAPD markers,” Journal of Phytopathology, vol. 152, no. 10, pp. 543–548, 2004.
[26]  M. Kabbage, J. F. Leslie, K. A. Zeller, S. H. Hulbert, and W. W. Bockus, “Genetic diversity of Mycosphaerella graminicola, the causal agent of Septoria tritici blotch, in Kansas winter wheat,” Journal of Agricultural, Food, and Environmental Sciences, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 2008.
[27]  S. Gurung, S. B. Goodwin, M. Kabbage, W. W. Bockus, and T. B. Adhikari, “Genetic differentiation at microsatellite loci among populations of Mycosphaerella graminicola from California, Indiana, Kansas, and North Dakota,” Phytopathology, vol. 101, no. 10, pp. 1251–1259, 2011.
[28]  M. Medini and S. Hamza, “Pathotype and molecular characterization of Mycosphaerella graminicola isolates collected from Tunisia, Algeria, and Canada,” Journal of Plant Pathology, vol. 90, pp. 65–73, 2008.
[29]  M. Abrinbana, J. Mozafari, M. Shams-bakhsh, and R. Mehrabi, “Genetic structure of Mycosphaerella graminicola populations in Iran,” Plant Pathology, vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 829–838, 2010.
[30]  S. B. Goodwin, T. A. J. van der Lee, J. R. Cavaletto, B. te Lintel Hekkert, C. F. Crane, and G. H. J. Kema, “Identification and genetic mapping of highly polymorphic microsatellite loci from an EST database of the Septoria tritici blotch pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola,” Fungal Genetics and Biology, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 398–414, 2007.
[31]  G. H. J. Kema, S. B. Goodwin, S. Hamza et al., “A combined amplified fragment length polymorphism and randomly amplified polymorphism DNA genetic linkage map of Mycosphaerella graminicola, the Septoria tritici leaf blotch pathogen of wheat,” Genetics, vol. 161, no. 4, pp. 1497–1505, 2002.
[32]  S. B. Goodwin, S. B. M'Barek, B. Dhillon et al., “Finished genome of the fungal wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola reveals dispensome structure, chromosome plasticity, and stealth pathogenesis,” PLoS Genetics, vol. 7, no. 6, article 1002070, 2011.
[33]  C. A. Cordo, C. C. Linde, J. Zhan, and B. MCDonald, “Genotypic diversity of the wheat leaf blotch pathogen (Septoria tritici) in Buenos Aires Province,” Sociedad Argentina Botánica, vol. 41, pp. 293–305, 2006.
[34]  T. Jürgens, C. C. Linde, and B. A. McDonald, “Genetic structure of Mycosphaerella graminicola populations from Iran, Argentina and Australia,” European Journal of Plant Pathology, vol. 115, no. 2, pp. 223–233, 2006.
[35]  N. Castillo, C. Cordo, and M. R. Simón, “Molecular variability among isolates of Mycosphaerella graminicola, the causal agent of Septoria tritici blotch, in Argentina,” Phytoparasitica, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 379–389, 2010.
[36]  M. W. Shaw and D. J. Royle, “Airborne inoculum as a major source of Septoria tritici (Mycosphaerella graminicola) infections in winter wheat crops in the UK,” Plant Pathology, vol. 38, pp. 35–43, 1989.
[37]  Castillo N., Characterization of isolates of Mycosphaerella graminicola and identification of molecular markers associated to genes of resistance to the pathogen, Ph.D. thesis, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Museum, La Plata, Argentina, 2010.
[38]  T. B. Adhikari, X. Yang, J. R. Cavaletto et al., “Molecular mapping of Stb1, a potentially durable gene for resistance to Septoria tritici blotch in wheat,” Theoretical and Applied Genetics, vol. 109, no. 5, pp. 944–953, 2004.
[39]  T. B. Adhikari, H. Wallwork, and S. B. Goodwin, “Microsatellite markers linked to the Stb2 and Stb3 genes for resistance to Septoria tritici blotch in wheat,” Crop Science, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 1403–1411, 2004.
[40]  T. B. Adhikari, J. R. Cavaletto, J. Dubcovsky, J. O. Gieco, A. R. Schlatter, and S. B. Goodwin, “Molecular mapping of the Stb4 gene for resistance to Septoria tritici blotch in wheat,” Phytopathology, vol. 94, no. 11, pp. 1198–1206, 2004.
[41]  L. S. Arraiano, A. J. Worland, C. Ellerbrook, and J. K. M. Brown, “Chromosomal location of a gene for resistance to Septoria tritici blotch (Mycosphaerella graminicola) in the hexaploid wheat 'Synthetic 6x',” Theoretical and Applied Genetics, vol. 103, no. 5, pp. 758–764, 2001.
[42]  P. A. Brading, E. C. P. Verstappen, G. H. J. Kema, and J. K. M. Brown, “A gene-for-gene relationship between wheat and Mycosphaerella graminicola, the Septoria tritici blotch pathogen,” Phytopathology, vol. 92, no. 4, pp. 439–445, 2002.
[43]  C. A. McCartney, A. L. Br?lé-Babel, L. Lamari, and D. J. Somers, “Chromosomal location of a race-specific resistance gene to Mycosphaerella graminicola in the spring wheat ST6,” Theoretical and Applied Genetics, vol. 107, no. 7, pp. 1181–1186, 2003.
[44]  T. B. Adhikari, J. M. Anderson, and S. B. Goodwin, “Identification and molecular mapping of a gene in wheat conferring resistance to Mycosphaerella graminicola,” Phytopathology, vol. 93, no. 9, pp. 1158–1164, 2003.
[45]  L. Chartrain, P. Sourdille, M. Bernard, and J. K. M. Brown, “Identification and location of Stb9, a gene for resistance to Septoria tritici blotch in wheat cultivars courtot and tonic,” Plant Pathology, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 547–555, 2009.
[46]  L. Chartrain, S. T. Berry, and J. K. M. Brown, “Resistance of wheat line Kavkaz-K4500 L.6.A.4 to Septoria tritici blotch controlled by isolate-specific resistance genes,” Phytopathology, vol. 95, no. 6, pp. 664–671, 2005.
[47]  L. Chartrain, P. Joaquim, S. T. Berry, L. S. Arraiano, F. Azanza, and J. K. M. Brown, “Genetics of resistance to Septoria tritici blotch in the Portuguese wheat breeding line TE 9111,” Theoretical and Applied Genetics, vol. 110, no. 6, pp. 1138–1144, 2005.
[48]  R. A. McIntosh, K. M. Devos, J. Dubcovsky et al., “V Catalogue of gene symbols for wheat Supplement,” 2007, http://wheat.pw.usda.gov/ggpages/wgc/2007upd.html.
[49]  L. S. Arraiano, L. Chartrain, E. Bossolini, H. N. Slatter, B. Keller, and J. K. M. Brown, “A gene in European wheat cultivars for resistance to an African isolate of Mycosphaerella graminicola,” Plant Pathology, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 73–78, 2007.
[50]  S. M. T. Ghaffari, J. D. Faris, T. L. Friesen et al., “New broad-spectrum resistance to Septoria tritici blotch derived from synthetic hexaploid wheat,” TAG Theoretical and Applied Genetics, vol. 124, no. 1, pp. 125–142, 2011.
[51]  M. R. Simón, F. M. Ayala, C. A. Cordo, M. S. R?der, and A. B?rner, “Molecular mapping of quantitative trait loci determining resistance to Septoria tritici blotch caused by Mycosphaerella graminicola in wheat,” Euphytica, vol. 138, no. 1, pp. 41–48, 2004.
[52]  S. M. T. Ghaffari, O. Robert, V. Laurent et al., “Genetic analysis of resistance to Septoria tritici blotch in the French winter wheat cultivars Balance and Apache,” Theoretical and Applied Genetics, vol. 123, no. 5, pp. 741–754, 2011.
[53]  L. Eriksen, F. Borum, and A. Jahoor, “Inheritance and localisation of resistance to Mycosphaerella graminicola causing Septoria tritici blotch and plant height in the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genome with DNA markers,” Theoretical and Applied Genetics, vol. 107, no. 3, pp. 515–527, 2003.
[54]  P. Risser, E. Ebmeyer, V. Korzun, L. Hartl, and T. Miedaner, “Quantitative trait loci for adult-plant resistance to Mycosphaerella graminicola in two winter wheat populations,” Phytopathology, vol. 101, no. 10, pp. 1209–1216, 2011.
[55]  C. Kelm, S. M. T. Ghaffary, H. Bruelheide et al., “The genetic architecture of seedling resistance to Septoria tritici blotch in the winter wheat doubled-haploid population Solit?r × Mazurka,” Molecular Breeding. In press.
[56]  T. Miedaner, P. Risser, S. Paillard et al., “Broad-spectrum resistance loci for three quantitatively inherited diseases in two winter wheat populations,” Molecular Breeding. In press.
[57]  R. S. Zwart, J. P. Thompson, A. W. Milgate et al., “QTL mapping of multiple foliar disease and root-lesion nematode resistances in wheat,” Molecular Breeding, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 107–124, 2010.
[58]  R. Raman, A. W. Milgate, M. Imtiaz et al., “Molecular mapping and physical location of major gene conferring seedling resistance to Septoria tritici blotch in wheat,” Molecular Breeding, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 153–164, 2009.
[59]  S. B. Goodwin and I. Thompson, “Development of isogenic lines for resistance to Septoria tritici blotch in wheat,” Czech Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. S98–S101, 2011.
[60]  M. R. Simón, A. J. Worland, C. A. Cordo, and P. C. Struik, “Chromosomal location of resistance to Septoria tritici in seedlings of a synthetic hexaploid wheat, Triticum spelta and two cultivars of Triticum aestivum,” Euphytica, vol. 119, no. 1-2, pp. 151–155, 2001.
[61]  M. R. Simón, A. J. Worland, and P. C. Struik, “Chromosomal location of genes encoding for resistance to Septoria tritici blotch (Mycosphaerella graminicola) in substitution lines of wheat,” Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 113–129, 2005.
[62]  M. R. Simón, F. M. Ayala, C. A. Cordo, M. S. R?der, and A. B?rner, “The use of wheat/goatgrass introgression lines for the detection of gene(s) determining resistance to Septoria tritici blotch (Mycosphaerella graminicola),” Euphytica, vol. 154, no. 1-2, pp. 249–254, 2007.
[63]  M. R. Simon, E. K. Khlestkina, N. S. Castillo, and A. B?rner, “Mapping quantitative resistance to Septoria tritici blotch in spelt wheat,” European Journal of Plant Pathology, vol. 128, no. 3, pp. 317–324, 2010.
[64]  M. R. Simón, A. J. Worland, and P. C. Struik, “Influence of plant height and heading date on the expression of the resistance to Septoria tritici blotch in near isogenic lines of wheat,” Crop Science, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 2078–2085, 2004.
[65]  M. R. Simón, A. E. Perelló, C. A. Cordo, S. Larrán, P. E. L. Van Der Putten, and P. C. Struik, “Association between Septoria tritici blotch, plant height, and heading date in wheat,” Agronomy Journal, vol. 97, no. 4, pp. 1072–1081, 2005.

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus