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Evaluation of Quantitative Phytochemicals, Liver Enzymes and Histological Changes in Isoniazid Induced Hepatotoxicity in Adult Male Wistar Rats Treated with Aqueous Extracts of Brysocarpus coccineus

DOI: 10.4236/aer.2017.53004, PP. 33-44

Keywords: Brysocarpus coccineus, Isoniazid, Hepatotoxicity, Phytochemicals

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Abstract:

Isoniazid induced hepatotoxicity is a major concern in patients taking anti tuberculosis treatment and prophylaxis. It can result in elevated serum liver enzymes and hepatic failure. The aim of the study was to evaluate the phytochemicals and ameliorative effects of aqueous extracts of Brysocarpus coccineus on serum liver enzymes in isoniazid (INH) induced hepatotoxicity in adult male Wistar rats. Thirty six (36) adult male Wistar rats were divided into six groups of six rats each and were treated orally for 30 days as follows: Group I: 1 ml/kg of distilled water; group II: Isoniazid (27 mg/kg); group III: Isoniazid (27 mg/kg) + Livolin forte (20 mg/kg); group IV: Isoniazid (27 mg/kg) + B. coccineus (200 mg/kg); group V: Isoniazid (27 mg/kg) + B. coccineus (400 mg/kg); group VI: Isoniazid (27 mg/kg) + B. coccineus (800 mg/kg). At the end of the experiments, the Wistar rats were sacrificed and sera obtained for liver enzymes assay, whereas the liver tissue was also harvested and used for histological studies. Tanins, saponins, alkaloids and flavonoids were quantitatively present at 2.29%, 18.05%, 23.24% and 18.99%, respectively. There was an increase in the serum AST and ALT in the isoniazid treated group, which was reversed by livolin forte and the aqueous extracts at a dose of 200 mg/kg, however the extracts increased the serum levels of AST and ALT at higher doses, which was however not significant (p > 0.05) when compared to the controls. There was evidence of a reduction in hepatocytes damage in the extract treated groups when compared to the Isoniazid untreated group. In conclusion, aqueous extracts of B. coccineus shows hepatoprotective effects at 200 mg/kg in isoniazid hepatotoxicity in adult male Wistar rats.

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