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Multi-Source Data Analyses of Processes of a Squall Line and the Gale Weather with Heavy Hails before the Squall Line

DOI: 10.4236/gep.2017.58004, PP. 27-40

Keywords: Hailing before the Squall, Temperature Frontal-Zone, Wind Profiling Radar, Vertical Wind Shears, Supercell Storms

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Abstract:

Through multi-source data analyses of regional automatic station data, wind profiling radar, lightning information, new-generation weather-radar echo data and conventional observations in Fujian Province, and others, this paper finds out aspects to focus on for potential forecasts and the nowcasting of wide-range gale weathers with thunderstorms and hail weathers in west Fujian Province on April 26th, 2016. Thus providing a basis for future forecasting of such catastrophic meteorological activities. Results of analyses showed that being affected by the eastward moving of upper troughs and the eastward and southward moving of low-level vortex shears, cold air and warm air strongly intersected in west Fujian Province; noticeable cold and warm advection formed the temperature frontal-zone; and under the triggering of the ground convergence line, impetuses formed by the strong convergent uplift before the south troughs forcibly produced wide-range squall lines, hails and other strong convective weathers. The squall line was caused by baroclinic frontogenesis. Hails with a diameter of up to 3 cm happened in the prefrontal warm zone. Supercells were generated and developed in the 80 km hot low-pressure convergence zone before the squall line moved along the direction at about 25° to the right of the mean wind field of the environment, belonged to right-shifting hailstorms, were of characteristics representing the hook echo and were of characteristics that the strength of the echo was high. On the afternoon of 26th, on the ground, temperature and humidity strongly increased. Fujian was located in the warm zone in the south side of the inverted trough. The specific humidity at 850 hPa was higher than 12 g/kg. The positive temperature change lasted for 24 hours. In the inland, the ridge was warm, while the trough was cold. Strong vertical wind shears that reached 20 m/s at 925 - 500 hPa and others were beneficial environmental conditions for forming the process of strong convective weather of baroclinic frontogenesis for this time.

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