Adverse effect of drought will be decreased with the selection of appropriate plant cover that cause reduction in surface runoff and soil erosion and increase in water availability through increased infiltration. This will also help plant growth and resistance to drought. In addition, plant cover will decrease damage from flooding and land sliding. In this study, effects of black locust afforestation studies in acid rain influenced areas on surface runoff and sediment transportation were investigated and compared to adjacent grasslands. The highest surface runoff and sediment transportation were measured in the periods of May-June and October-November. The total surface runoff in grassland area was 263 m3/ha while it was 18 m3/ha in adjacent black locust area between May and November. The total amount of sediment transported in the same period were 43.6 kg/ha in grassland and 5 kg/ha in black locust area, respectively. Our results indicate that the black locust afforestation studies were more effective than grasslands in preventing erosion and surface runoff in the region.