全部 标题 作者
关键词 摘要


黄土高原山洪泥石流气象预警区划方法初探
Study on Loess Plateau of Geo-Hazards in the Law and Meteorological Early Warning Method

DOI: 10.12677/OJSWC.2016.42004, PP. 17-27

Keywords: 山洪泥石流,发育规律,气象预警区划,陕西黄陵县
Geo-Hazard
, Development Law, Weather Early Warning, Huangling County

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

黄土高原地质灾害频发,山洪泥石流危害严重,已成为影响当地国计民生的很大障碍。通过详细的野外地质灾害调查,利用多年的地质灾害资料和气象资料,分析了研究区地质灾害的时空分布特点及其与降雨的关系,发现山洪泥石流灾害的发生特点与降雨量分布的关系非常密切。在对山洪泥石流发育机理和规律进行深入分析的基础上,结合山洪泥石流等地质灾害发生时的降雨资料,确定了地质灾害气象预警临界降雨量阈值,在此基础上进行地质灾害气象预警区划,分区建立了基于降雨量观测和预报的山洪泥石流气象预报模式。通过在黄土高原山洪泥石流区应用检验,效果良好。
Increasingly serious geo-hazards in Loess Plateau have become a substantial obstacle affecting the local people’s livelihood. According to detailed field geo-hazard survey, on the use of years of geo-logical disasters and weather information, this paper analyzed the relationship between geo- haz-ards spatial and temporal distribution and rainfall in the study area, and pointed out a very close relationship between the occurrence characteristics of geo-hazards and rainfall distribution. It is shown that rainfall is the main excitation factor of landslides, avalanches, landslides and other geo-hazards. Based on the further analysis of development mechanism and law of geological dis-asters in the area, combined with the rainfall data, this paper determined the geological disaster weather warning rainfall threshold. According to the latest information on geological hazards on the basis of meteorological early warning zoning, zoning is established based on rainfall observations and forecasting of geo-hazards in weather forecasting model, and this mode is the main technical methods applied in the test showing that it has a relatively good results in Huangling County, Shaanxi Province, and it is beneficial to the local government departments to take appropriate preventive measures.

References

[1]  刘增文, 李雅素. 黄土残塬区侵蚀沟道分类研究[J]. 中国水土保持, 2003(9): 28-30.
[2]  Huo, A. and Li, H. (2013) Assessment of Climate Change Impact on the Stream-Flow in a Typical Debris Flow Watershed of Jianzhuangcuan Catchment in Shaanxi Province, China. Environmental Earth Sciences, 69, 1931-1938.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12665-012-2025-0
[3]  刘传正. 区域滑坡泥石流灾害预警理论与方法研究[J]. 水文地质工程地质, 2004, 31(3): 1-6.
[4]  Huo, A.D., et al. (2012) A Sampled Method of Classification of Susceptibility Evaluation Unit for Geo-logical Hazards Based on GIS. Applied Mathematics & Information Sciences, 6, 19S-23S.
[5]  魏永明, 谢又予. 降雨型泥石流(水石流)预报模型研究[J]. 自然灾害学报, 1997, 6(4): 48-54.
[6]  荆绍华. 泥石流临界雨量和触发雨量的初步分析[J]. 铁道工程学报, 1986(4): 91-95.
[7]  韦方强, 胡凯衡. 不同损失条件下的泥石流预报模型[J]. 山地学报, 2002, 20(1): 97-102.
[8]  文科军, 于志民. 暴雨泥石流实时预报的研究[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 1998, 20(6): 59-64.
[9]  吴积善. 云南蒋家沟泥石流观测研究[M]. 北京: 科学出版社, 1990.
[10]  程晓露, 张华莉. 陕西省地质灾害气象预报预警系统的应用与现状[J]. 陕西地质, 2005, 23(2): 84-89.
[11]  姚学祥, 等. 基于降水量的全国地质灾害潜势预报模式[J]. 中国地质灾害与防治学报, 2005, 16(4): 97-102.
[12]  周玉才, 等. 江西省地质灾害-气象预警预报系统研究[J]. 中国地质灾害与防治学报, 2008, 19(2): 67-70.
[13]  Huo, A.-D., et al. (2016) Submerged Area of Typical Torrential Flood and Debris-Flow Disasters in Mengzong Gully, China. Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk, 7, 1-7.
[14]  霍艾迪, 等. 地质灾害易发性评价单元划分方法——以陕西省黄陵县为例[J]. 吉林大学学报: 地球科学版, 2011, 41(2): 523-528.
[15]  刘传正, 温铭生, 唐灿. 中国地质灾害气象预警初步研究[J]. 地质通报, 2004, 23(4): 303-309.

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus