Introduction: The objective of this study was the estimation of the clinical characteristics of patients with pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease complicated by lung cancer during the follow-up periods. Methods: We analyzed the clinical findings of four patients (2.0%) complicated by lung cancer during the follow-up periods of over six months at least after the definite diagnosis of pulmonary NTM disease of 202 patients with pulmonary NTM disease experienced in our hospital in the last decade. Results: There were four patients with pulmonary NTM disease complicated by lung cancer and all of them were caused by Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). They were all elderly male patients and had underlying diseases. Three patients were diagnosed with primary lung cancer and one diagnosed with metastatic lung cancer from colon cancer within 3 years after the diagnosis of pulmonary NTM disease. The treatments for lung cancer were surgical resection for all patients with localized lesions. One patient died due to the worsening of underlying disease and the remaining three survived except for the recurrence of one patient. Conclusion: Although the complication rate of pulmonary NTM disease and lung cancer was a lower percentage (2.0%) than in previous reports, the careful follow-up for patients with pulmonary NTM disease without forgetting the possible complication of lung cancer is necessary.
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