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基于灌区尺度聚落与水土资源耦合协调度研究—以张掖绿洲为例
The Coupling Coordination Degree Study of Settlement and Land and Water Resources Based on Irrigation District—A Case Study of Zhangye Oasis

DOI: 10.12677/OJSWC.2015.34008, PP. 55-64

Keywords: 灌区,人–水–土系统,耦合度,协调度,张掖绿洲
Irrigation District
, Human-Water-Soil Systems, Coupling, Coordination Degree, Zhangye Oasis

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Abstract:

多个两个相近相通,又相差相异的系统,不仅有静态的相似性,也有动态的互动性,即具有耦合关系。协调度是度量系统或系统内部要素之间在发展过程中彼此和谐一致的程度,体现了系统由无序走向有序的趋势。在现代绿洲,水–土–人–经系统存在着高度的共生性和相互依存性。论文基于张掖市第二次土地调查数据,构建了适合于绿洲灌区的测评指标体系,综合应用耦合度模型、协调度模型,对张掖绿洲29个灌区的聚落与水土资源之间的的耦合协调度进行了分析。结果表明:张掖绿洲29个灌区单元中,耦合度可划分为高度耦合、磨合、拮抗、低度耦合四类,聚落和水、土资源耦合度耦合度平均值为0.714,为高水平耦合阶段,但空间差异明显。高度耦合灌区主要分布在部分典型的绿洲核心区,基本沿黑河干流分布;处于磨合阶段的地区主要分布在沿山灌区,或绿洲边缘灌区,但基本上都有径流量较大的支流,水资源有一定的保证程度;处于拮抗阶段的灌区主要分布在张掖境内黑河干流下游的外围地带;低度耦合灌区,主要是肃南皇城灌区和明花灌区,属于更典型的独立灌区。灌区人–水–土系统协调度的空间分布格局与耦合度分布格局基本类似,同样可划分为极度协调、高度协调、适度协调、低度协调四类,但略有不同,其中,极度协调灌区主要分布黑河干流流经的典型绿洲灌区;高度协调地区主要分布绿洲边缘和少部分沿山灌区;适度协调地区分布在依托独立水系(老军河、马营河、沙河、苏油口河)形成的沿山灌区;低度协调区主要分布在肃南更典型的独立灌区。综合各灌区单元的耦合度与协调度,对张掖绿29个灌区单元进行分类,将其分为4个类型区:高耦合高协调地区、磨合区(即高耦合低和谐地区)、拮抗区(即中耦合低和谐地区)和低耦合低和谐地区。
Multiple subsystems are interdependent as well as independent, forming a mutually complemen-tary relationship, which has a coupling relationship. The coordination is a measure of the degree of harmony between the degree of system or internal elements in the development process, which embodies the system from disorder to order trends. In modern oasis, within the human-water-soil system composed of human being, water and soil resources, there exist close relations and inte-ractions among the system’s elements. Based on the data of human-water-soil system in Zhangye irrigation districts, as well as the second land survey database of Zhangye city, we constructed human-water-soil comprehensive evaluation function, and then used the model of coupled degree and coupled coordination degree to calculate each degree of human-water-soil system in Zhangye irrigation. The result showed that: in 29 irrigation units of Zhangye oasis, coupling degree can be divided into four categories. The average of coupling degree about human and water, soil resource is 0.714 for the high level of coupling stage, but the distribution of coupling degree is significantly different. Region in highly coupling degree is mainly distributed in some typical core areas of the oasis and is almost distributed along the Heihe River; region in the run stage is mainly distributed in the hillside irrigation or edge of oasis irrigation and relies on large tributaries. Water has a certain level of assurance. Irrigation in antagonistic stage is mainly located in the territory of Zhangye Heihe River downstream outlying areas; low coupling region is distributed in the more independent Sunan irrigation region. The spatial distribution characteristics about human-water- soil system of the degree of coordination and coupling are

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