All Title Author
Keywords Abstract


Integrated Tools for American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Surveillance and Control: Intervention in an Endemic Area in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

DOI: 10.1155/2012/568312

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a focal disease whose surveillance and control require complex actions. The present study aimed to apply integrated tools related to entomological surveillance, environmental management, and health education practices in an ACL-endemic area in Rio de Janeiro city, RJ, Brazil. The distribution of the disease, the particular characteristics of the localities, and entomological data were used as additional information about ACL determinants. Environmental management actions were evaluated after health education practices. The frequency of ACL vectors Lutzomyia (N.) intermedia and L. migonei inside and outside houses varied according to environment characteristics, probably influenced by the way of life of the popular groups. In this kind of situation environmental management and community mobilization become essential, as they help both specialists and residents create strategies that can interfere in the dynamics of vector’s population and the contact between man and vectors. 1. Introduction American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is among the six most important infectious diseases and the 15 most neglected diseases of the world [1]. It presents a diversity of transmission cycles that involve different species of parasites, vectors, and hosts in restricted ecological niches [2]. Thus, the indication of control measures must consider the entomological and epidemiological characteristics of each locality. According to Sabroza et al. [3], for each disease and particular situation there are environmental and behavioral factors related to the production of endemic or epidemic processes. To explain these factors, Sabroza et al. [3, page 216] used the concept of conditions receptivity, defined as the “set of environmental, social and behavioral characteristics that allow the reproduction of the parasites and its maintenance in the communities.” The city of Rio de Janeiro presents many areas where these conditions are met, mainly because of human occupation of hillsides, which modifies the landscape and favors the installation of ACL transmission cycles. The number of cases in the city has been increasing since the 1980s, with the west zone presenting the highest indices, more specifically the region of Jacarepaguá [4]. Most of the cases in the study area (Campus FIOCRUZ da Mata Atlantica - CFMA, Rio de Janeiro) are related to the occupation of hillsides in Maci?o da Pedra Branca, an Atlantic Forest area. The present study aimed to discuss an experience on ACL surveillance based on integrated tools related to entomological

References

[1]  Ministério da Saúde, Secretaria de Vigilancia em Saúde, Manual De Vigilancia Da Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana, SVS, Brasília, Brazil, 2007.
[2]  E. F. Rangel, Estudo comparativo de três popula??es de Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho, 1939) (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) [Ph.D. thesis], Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de S?o Paulo, S?o Paulom, Brazil.
[3]  P. C. Sabroza, H. Kawa, and W. S. Q. Campos, “Doen?as Transmissíveis ainda um desafio,” in Organizadora. Os Muitos Brasis—SaúdE E Popula??o Na Década dE 80, M. C. S. Minayo, Ed., pp. 177–244, Editora Huscitec-Abrasco, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1995.
[4]  H. Kawa and P. C. Sabroza, “Espacializa??o da leishmaniose tegumentar na cidade do Rio de Janeiro,” Cadernos de Saúde Pública, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 853–865, 2002.
[5]  R. M. Oliveira and V. V. Valla, “As condi??es e as experiências de vida de grupos populares no Rio de Janeiro: repensando a mobiliza??o popular no controle do dengue,” Cadernos de Saúde Pública, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 77–88, 2001.
[6]  FIOCRUZ, Diagnóstico Do Setor 1 Da Col?nia Juliano Moreira, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2004.
[7]  H. Pugedo, R. A. Barata, J. C. Fran?a-Silva, J. C. Silva, and E. Dias, “HP: um modelo aprimorado de armadilha luminosa de suc??o para a captura de pequenos insetos,” Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 70–72, 2005.
[8]  D. C. Young and N. A. Duncan, Guide To Identification and Geographic Distribution of Lutzomyia Sandflies in Mexico, the West Indies, Central and South America (Diptera: Psychodidae), vol. 54, American Entomological Institute, Gainesville, Fla, USA, 1994.
[9]  C. Gouveia, Condi??es particulares de transmiss?o da Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana em localidades do Campus FIOCRUZ da Mata Atlantica (Jacarepaguá, Rio de Janeiro/RJ) [Master’s dissertation], Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sérgio Arouca, Funda??o Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2008.
[10]  E. F. Rangel, N. A. Souza, E. D. Wermelinger, A. C. Azevedo, A. F. Barbosa, and C. A. Andrade, “Phlebotomus of Vargem Grande, a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Rio de Janeiro,” Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, vol. 81, no. 3, pp. 347–349, 1986.
[11]  E. F. Rangel, A. C. Azevedo, C. A. Andrade, N. A. Souza, and E. D. Wermelinger, “Studies on sandfly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis in mesquita, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil,” Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, vol. 85, no. 1, pp. 39–45, 1990.
[12]  P. C. Sabroza, O domicílio como fator de risco na leishmaniose tegumentar americana: estudo epidemiológico em Jacarepaguá, município do Rio de Janeiro [Master’s dissertation], Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sérgio Arouca, Funda??o Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1981.
[13]  R. Lainson, “The American leishmaniases: some observations on their ecology and epidemiology,” Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 77, no. 5, pp. 569–596, 1983.
[14]  R. Lainson, “Ecological interactions in the transmission of the leishmaniases,” Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological sciences, vol. 321, no. 1207, pp. 389–404, 1988.
[15]  L. M. Toledo, Leishmaniose Tegumentar e Leishmaniose Visceral em área Peri-Urbana no Município do Rio de Janeiro [Master’s dissertation], Instituo Oswaldo Cruz, Funda??o Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1987.
[16]  E. F. Rangel, “Transmission of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in peridomestic foci in Rio de Janeiro State and other similar situations compared to the classical epidemiology in Amazon region,” in Proceedings of the Tropical Disease, Society and the Environment, vol. 2, pp. 103–110, 1995.
[17]  J. F. Walsh, D. H. Molyneux, and M. H. Birley, “Deforestation: effects on vector-borne disease,” Parasitology, vol. 106, pp. S55–S75, 1993.
[18]  H. Kawa, A produ??o do lugar de transmiss?o de leishmaniose tegumentar na cidade do Rio de Janeiro [Ph.D. thesis], Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sérgio Arouca, Funda??o Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2003.
[19]  S. M. Costa, Estudos de algumas popula??es brasileiras de Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) whitmani s. 1. (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), importante transmissor de agentes da leishmaniose tegumentar americana [Master’s dissertation], Universidade Federal de Vi?osa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 2005.
[20]  C. R. V. Meneses, A. C. R. De Azevedo, S. M. Da Costa, W. A. Costa, and E. F. Rangel, “Ecology of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil,” Journal of Vector Ecology, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 207–214, 2002.
[21]  C. R. V. Meneses, E. Cupolillo, F. Monteiro, and E. F. Rangel, “Micro-geographical variation among male populations of the sandfly, Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) intermedia, from an endemic area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil,” Medical and Veterinary Entomology, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 38–47, 2005.
[22]  P. Blaikie, T. Cannon, I. Davis, and B. Wisner, Vulnerabilidad: El Entorno Social, Político y Económico de Los Desastres, Tercer Mundo Editores, Col?mbia, 1996.
[23]  M. P. Oliveira-Neto, Leishmaniose tegumentar no Estado do Rio de Janeiro: estudo de 648 casos observados no Hospital Evandro Chagas [PhD thesis], Instituto de Pesquisas Clínicas, Funda??o Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1998.
[24]  B. Alexander, R. L. de Carvalho, H. McCallum, and M. H. Pereira, “Role of the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus) in the epidemiology of urban visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil,” Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 1480–1485, 2002.
[25]  U. Teodoro, V. Thomaz-Soccol, J. B. Kühl et al., “Reorganization and cleanness of peridomiciliar area to control sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) in south Brazil,” Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 205–212, 2004.
[26]  M. M. Afonso, A. C. Gomes, C. R. Meneses, and E. F. Rangel, “Studies on the feeding habits of Lutzomyia (N.) intermedia (Diptera, Psychodidae), vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil,” Cadernos de Saúde Pública, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 1816–1820, 2005.
[27]  D. Pita-Pereira, C. R. Alves, M. B. Souza et al., “Identification of naturally infected Lutzomyia intermedia and Lutzomyia migonei with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) revealed by a PCR multiplex non-isotopic hybridisation assay,” Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 99, no. 12, pp. 905–913, 2005.
[28]  G. M. Aguiar, M. L. Vilela, and R. B. Lima, “Ecology of the sandflies of Itaguaí, an area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Rio de Janeiro. Food preferences (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae),” Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, vol. 82, no. 4, pp. 583–584, 1987.
[29]  E. F. Rangel, N. A. de Souza, E. D. Wermelinger, and A. F. Barbosa, “Natural infection of Lutzomyia intermedia Lutz & Neiva, 1912, in an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis of Rio de Janeiro,” Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 395–396, 1984.
[30]  N. A. Araújo-Filho, Epidemiologia da leishmaniose tegumentar na Ilha Grande [Master’s dissertation], Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1978.
[31]  O. P. Forattini, Entomologia Médica, Edgard Blucher, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1973.
[32]  M. P. Barreto, Observa??es sobre a biologia em condi??es naturais, dos flebótomos do Estado de S?o Paulo (Diptera, Psychodidae) [Ph.D. thesis], Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de S?o Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1943.
[33]  World Health Organization, “Control of the leishmaniases: report of a meeting of the WHO expert committee on the control of leishmaniases,” Tech. Rep. 949, WHO Press, Geneva, Switzerland, 2010.
[34]  A. Warburg and R. Faiman, “Research priorities for the control of phlebotomine sand flies,” Journal of Vector Ecology, vol. 36, no. 1, supplement, pp. S10–S16, 2011.

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus