The aim of this article was to assess the influence of long-term application of compost on the physical, chemical, and biological properties, as well as the fertility, of soil in a field subjected to double cropping (paddy rice and barley), mainly by integrating previous studies of the effects of compost and manure on soil qualities. Continuous compost application, especially at a high level (30 Mg·ha-1·y-1), into the double cropping soils increased the activities of organic C-, N-, and P-decomposing enzymes and the contents of organic C, total N, and microbial biomass N, as well as the cation exchange capacity, thereby contributing to the enhancement of soil fertility. Also, the compost application increased the degree of water-stable soil macroaggregation (>0.25 mm), which was correlated significantly (r > 0.950, p < 0.05) with the contents of hydrolyzable carbohydrates (with negative charge) and active Al (with positive charge), and resulted in the modification of soil physical properties. Furthermore, the application increased the amount of soil organic matter, including humic acid with a low degree of darkening and fulvic acid, and contributed to C sequestration and storage. Physical fractionation of soil indicated that about 60% of soil organic C was distributed in the silt-sized (2 - 20 μm) aggregate and clay-sized (<2 μm) aggregate fractions, while about 30% existed in the decayed plant fractions (53 - 2000 μm). The results obtained unambiguously indicate that long-term application of compost can improve soil qualities in the field subjected to double cropping, depending on the amount applied.
Aoyama, M., Angers, D.A. and N’Dayegamiye, A. (1999) Particulate and Mineral-Associated Organic Matter in Water-Stable Aggregates as Affected by Mineral Fertilizer and Manure Applications. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 79, 295-302. http://dx.doi.org/10.4141/S98-049
Schjonning, P., Christensen, B.T. and Carstensen, B. (1994) Physical and Chemical Properties of a Sandy Loam Receiving Animal Manure, Mineral Fertilizer or no Fertilizer for 90 Years. European Journal of Soil Science, 45, 257-268. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2389.1994.tb00508.x
Ndayegamiye, A. and Côté, D. (1989) Effect of Long-Term Pig Slurry and Solid Cattle Manure Application on Soil Chemical and Biological Properties. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 69, 36-47. http://dx.doi.org/10.4141/cjss89-005
Campbell, C.A., Schnitzer, M., Stewart, J.W.B., Biederbeck, V.O. and Selles, F. (1986) Effect of Manure and P Fertilizer on Properties of a Black Chernozem in Southern Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 66, 601-613.
Shindo, H. and Shojaku, M. (1999) Effect of Continuous Compost Application on the Activities of Various Enzymes in Soil of Double Cropping Fields. Japanese Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 70, 66-69. (In Japanese)
Ibrahim, S.M. and Shindo, H. (1999) Effect of Continuous Compost Application on Water-Stable Soil Macroaggregation in a Field Subjected to Double Cropping. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 45, 1003-1007.
Shindo, H., Hirahara, O., Yoshida, M. and Yamamoto, A. (2006) Effect of Continuous Compost Application on Humus Composition and Nitrogen Fertility of Soils in a Field Subjected to Double Cropping. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 42, 437-442. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00374-006-0088-3
Nguyen, T.H. and Shindo, H. (2011) Effects of Different Levels of Compost Application on Amounts and Distribution of Organic Nitrogen Forms in Soil Particle Size Fractions Subjected Mainly to Double Cropping. Agricultural Sciences, 2, 213-219. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/as.2011.23030
Shindo, H. and Shimada, M. (2001) Effect of Continuous Compost Application on Humus Composition in Soil of Double Cropping Fields. Japanese Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 72, 92-95. (In Japanese)
Nguyen, T.H. and Shindo, H. (2011) Quantitative and Qualitative Changes of Humus in Whole Soils and Their Particle Size Fractions as Influenced by Different Levels of Compost Application. Agricultural Sciences, 2, 1-8.
Tanaka, M. and Shindo, H. (2009) Effect of Continuous Compost Application on Carbon and Nitrogen Contents of Whole Soils and Their Particle Size Fractions in a Field Subjected Mainly to Double Cropping. In: Pereira, J.C. and Bolin, J.L., Eds., Composting, Processing, Materials and Approaches, Nova Science Publishers, New York, NY. 187-197.
Ladd, J.N. and Butler, J.H.A. (1972) Short-Term Assays of Soil Proteolytic Enzyme Activities Using Proteins and Dipeptide Derivatives as Substrates. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 4, 19-30.
Brookes, P.C., Landman, A., Pruden, G. and Jenkinson, D.S. (1985) Chloroform Fumigation and the Release of Soil Nitrogen: A Rapid Direct Extraction Method to Measure Microbial Biomass Nitrogen in Soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 17, 837-842. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0038-0717(85)90144-0
Ogawa, Y., Kato, H. and Ishikawa, M. (1989) A Simple Analytical Method for Index of Soil Nitrogen Availability by Extracting in Phosphate Buffer Solution. Japanese Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 60, 160-163. (In Japanese)
Yoder, R.E. (1936) A Direct Method of Aggregate Analysis of Soils and a Study of the Physical Nature of Erosion Losses. Journal of American Society of Agronomy, 28, 337-351.
Ibrahim, S.M., Inoue, Y. and Shindo, H. (1998) Role of Active Aluminum in the Formation of Water-Stable Macroaggregates. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 44, 685-689. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00380768.1998.10414493
Ikeya, K. and Watanabe, A. (2003) Direct Expression of an Index for the Degree of Humification of Humic Acids Using Organic Carbon Concentration. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 49, 47-53.
Kanazawa, S. (2005) The Function Analysis of the Plant Debris as an Active Site of Microbial Activity and Material Metabolisms in Cultivated and Forest Soils. Japanese Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 76, 561-564. (In Japanese)
Sato, F. and Omura, H. (1989) Soil Enzyme Activities in Andosol Paddy Fields (1) Relationship between Soil Enzyme (β-Acetylglucosaminidase, Protease, and Adenosine Deaminase) Activities and Microbial Counts. Japanese Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 60, 34-40. (In Japanese)
Omura, H., Muroi, E., Sasaki, I. and Tochigi, H. (1988) Hydrolytic Enzyme Activities Related to Decomposition of Organic Nitrogen in Tomato Greenhouse Field. Japanese Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 59, 288-295. (In Japanese)
Chang, E.-H., Chung, R.-S. and Tsai, Y.-H. (2007) Effect of Different Application Rates of Organic Fertilizer on Soil Enzyme Activity and Microbial Population. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 53, 132-140.
Shindo, H. (1992) Effect of Continuous Compost Application on the Activities of Protease, Acetylglucosaminidase, and Adenosine Deaminase in Soils of Upland Fields and Relationships between the Enzyme Activities and the Mineralization of Organic Nitrogen. Japanese Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 63, 190-195. (In Japanese)
Xu, Y.C., Shen, Q.R. and Ran, W. (2003) Content and Distribution of Forms of Organic N in Soil and Particle Size Fractions after Long-Term Fertilization. Chemosphere, 50, 739-745.
Marumoto, T., Anderson, J.P.E. and Domsch, K.H. (1982) Decomposition of 14C- and 15N-Labelled Microbial Cells in Soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 14, 461-467. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0038-0717(82)90105-5
Matsumoto, S., Ae, N. and Yamagata, M. (2000) Extraction of Mineralizable Organic Nitrogen from Soils by a Neutral Phosphate Buffer Solution. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 22, 707-713.
Angers, D.A. and N’Dayegamiye, A. (1991) Effects of Manure Application on Carbon, Nitrogen, and Carbohydrate Contents of a Silt Loam and Its Particle Size Fractions. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 11, 79-82.
Chaney, K. and Swift, R.S. (1984) The Influence of Organic Matter on Aggregate Stability in Some British Soils. Journal of Soil Science, 35, 223-230. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2389.1984.tb00278.x
Haynes, R.J. and Swift, R.S. (1990) Stability of Soil Aggregates in Relation to Organic Constituents and Soil Water Content. Journal of Soil Science, 41, 73-83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2389.1990.tb00046.x
Miller, R.M. and Jastrow, J.D. (1990) Hierarchy of Root and Mycorrhizal Fungal Interactions with Soil Aggregation. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 22, 579-584. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0038-0717(90)90001-G
N’Dayegamiye, A. and Angers, D.A. (1990) Effects de l’apport prolonge’ de fumier de bovins sur quelques proprie’tes physiques et biologiques d’un loam limoneux Neubois sous culture de mais. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 70, 259-262. http://dx.doi.org/10.4141/cjss90-027
Aoyama, M. (1992) Accumulated Organic Matter and Its Nitrogen Mineralization in Soil Particle Size Fractions with Long-Term Application of Farmyard Manure or Compost. Japanese Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 63, 161-168. (In Japanese)
Cheshire, M.V. and Mundie, C.M. (1981) The Distribution of Labelled Sugars in Soil Particle Size Fraction as a Means of Distinguishing Plant and Microbial Carbohydrate Residues. Journal of Soil Science, 32, 605-618.
Roppongi, K., Ishigami, T. and Takeda, M. (1994) Effects of Continuous Application of Rice Straw Compost on Humus Forms of Alluvial Upland Soil. Japanese Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 65, 426-431. (In Japanese)
Aoyama, M. and Kumakura, N. (2001) Quantitative and Qualitative Changes of Organic Matter in an Ando Soil Induced by Mineral Fertilizer and Cattle Manure Application for 20 Years. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 47, 241-252.
Watanabe, A., Kawasaki, S., Kitamura, S. and Yoshida, S. (2007) Temporal Changes in Humic Acids in Cultivated Soils with Continuous Manure Application. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 53, 535-544.
K?gel, I., Hempfling, R., Zech, W., Hatcher, P.H. and Schulten, H.-R. (1988) Chemical Composition of the Organic Matter in Forest Soils: 1. Forest Litter. Soil Science, 146, 124-136.
Aoyama, M. and Taninai, Y. (1992) Organic Matter and Its Mineralization in Particle Size and Aggregate Size Fractions of Soils with Four-Year Application of Farmyard Manure. Japanese Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 63, 571-580. (In Japanese)