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金属学报  2015 

面向晶粒尺寸的超声多尺度衰减评价方法

DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2014.00369, PP. 121-128

Keywords: 晶粒尺寸,超声无损评价,多尺度分析,衰减系数

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Abstract:

用小波变换获取超声波能量的时间-尺度分布,研究衰减系数随尺度的分布规律,定义加权的超声多尺度衰减系数,结合粒子群算法设计的最优尺度组合及其归一化权重分配策略,建立晶粒尺寸的超声多尺度衰减评价模型.选用304不锈钢进行实验,其衰减系数-尺度分布图表明超声波在小尺度下衰减迅速,体现了高散射材料中衰减的频率特征;而随着试样晶粒尺寸增大,整个尺度范围内的衰减都明显加剧.实验结果显示,声速法、传统衰减法与本方法的最大系统误差分别是+12.57%,+5.85%和-1.33%.对金相法测得平均晶粒尺寸为103.5mm的验证试样用3种方法进行评价,结果分别为(110.4±7.8),(98.2±6.6)和(101.7±3.9)mm.本方法不仅可降低系统误差,且随机误差也被小波变换的恒Q滤波特性有效抑制.

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