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猪粪施用对成都平原稻季氨挥发特征的影响

DOI: 10.11654/jaes.2015.11.028, PP. 2236-2244

Keywords: 水稻,氨挥发,猪粪,铵态氮

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Abstract:

采用通气法开展田间小区原位监测试验,分别设置对照、常规化肥、猪粪和化肥配施、单施猪粪等7个处理,探讨不同比例猪粪施用对稻田氨挥发特征及环境、效益的影响.结果表明,氨挥发通量在施肥后的第2d达到峰值,然后迅速下降,氨挥发主要集中在施肥后的1周左右.在整个监测期间,氨挥发平均通量为2.87~5.89kg·hm-2·d-1,氨挥发累积量为43.72~87.38kg·hm-2,占氮肥施用量的24.27%~29.17%;猪粪和化肥配施处理较常规施肥处理能降低氨挥发累积量4.21%~16.74%,猪粪和化肥配施也有效降低了田面水铵态氮和硝态氮浓度,单施过量猪粪则促进了氨挥发;氨挥发通量与田面水铵态氮浓度呈明显线性正相关.猪粪和化肥配施处理较常规施肥处理稻谷增产196~779kg·hm-2,同时猪粪的施用也降低了稻田肥料投入成本,有效提高了农民纯收入.综合环境及经济效益,化肥+猪粪50%处理的猪粪投入量最佳,稻田猪粪消纳量为13264.54kg·hm-2,生猪承载量为20.19头·hm-2.

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