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太湖地区水稻产量、根圈土壤矿质态氮及氮素径流损失对氮肥的响应

DOI: 10.11654/jaes.2015.11.015, PP. 2140-2145

Keywords: SPAD值,土壤矿质态氮,土壤溶液,水稻,产量,总氮径流损失

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Abstract:

通过氮肥梯度小区试验,研究了施氮对水稻根圈土壤及土壤溶液矿质态氮、叶片SPAD值、氮素累积量、水稻产量和氮素径流损失的影响.结果表明:基肥显著增加了苗期水稻根圈土壤矿质态氮,追肥对水稻根圈土壤及土壤溶液矿质态氮含量影响较小;施氮对水稻顶三叶SPAD值影响较为显著,而不同氮肥梯度下SPAD值无显著差异.分蘖期后,施氮量和植株氮素累积量存在显著正相关关系;收获期秸秆氮累积随着施氮量的增加而增加,但籽粒氮累积受施氮量影响较小.施氮量的增加对水稻增产效果并不显著,却显著提高了总氮径流损失,降低了氮肥农学效率,综合考虑产量、农学效率和总氮径流损失,该地区施氮量需低于理论最高产量施氮量(243kg·hm-2);该季135kgN·hm-2施氮量处理产量虽有所下降(差异不显著),但其农学效率最高且总氮径流损失最低.针对污染严重区域,在保证产量的基础上采用低氮肥投入而极大限度地降低施氮对环境的潜在污染是可行的.

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